Sushruta Samhita Chapter 46 Annapana Vidhi Adhyaya


This article explains Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 46 “Annapana Vidi Adhyaya” – Regimen of food and drinks

Annapana Vidhi – Regimen of food and drinks

अथातोऽन्नपानविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ||२||

We will now expound the chapter by name Annapana Vidhi – Regimen of food and drink (including articles of diet), as revealed by the venerable Dhanvantari.
Read – Lord Dhanwantari ‘The God of Ayurveda’

Sushrutasya vijnapti

Request of Sushruta
धन्वन्तरिमभिवाद्य सुश्रुत उवाच- प्रागभिहितः ‘प्राणिनां पुनर्मूलमाहारो बलवर्णौजसां च, स षट्सु रसेष्वायत्तः, रसाः पुनर्द्रव्याश्रयिणः,’ द्रव्यरसगुणवीर्यविपाकनिमित्ते च क्षयवृद्धी दोषाणां साम्यं च, ब्रह्मादेरपि च लोकस्याहारः स्थित्युत्पत्तिविनाशहेतुः, आहारादेवाभिवृद्धिर्बलमारोग्यं वर्णेन्द्रियप्रसादश्च, तथा ह्याहारवैषम्यादस्वास्थ्यं; तस्याशितपीतलीढखादितस्य नानाद्रव्यात्मकस्यानेकविधविकल्पस्यानेकविधप्रभावस्य पृथक् पृथग्द्रव्यरसगुणवीर्यविपाककर्माणीच्छामि ज्ञातुं, न ह्यनवबुद्धस्वभावा भिषजः स्वस्थानुवृत्तिं रोगनिग्रहणं च कर्तुं समर्थाः; आहारायत्ताश्च सर्वप्राणिनो यस्मात्तस्मादन्नपानविधिमुपदिशतु मे भगवानित्युक्तः प्रोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः- अथ खलु वत्स सुश्रुत! यथाप्रश्नमुच्यमानमुपधारयस्व- ||३||
After offering obeisance of  venerable Dhanvantari, Susruta said “It was told earlier by your good self,  that food is the  cause of strength, color (complexion) and vitality of all living beings; that (food)  is dependent on six tastes, that these tastes are residing in substances; that increase, decrease and normally of the Doshas are dependent on  the tastes, qualities , potencies, and tastes after digestion of the substances; that food of even  Brahma etc, (other Gods) is the  cause for maintenance, creation and destruction of the world; that from food  only occurs, growth, strength, health, color (complexion) of the body and keenness of the sense organs; and that improper use of food leads to ill health. Now, I want to know, the articles of food, the taste, properties, potency, taste after digestion and actions of each one of them separately, which are prepared in the from of eatables, drinkables, lickables and chewables, by the combination of many substances, adopting many processes and possessing different special effects, since physician without such a knowledge will not be able to advise others on maintenance of health and prevention (or  cure) of diseases, since all living beings are dependent on food; so sir, please enlighten me on regimen of food.
To this request, venerable Dhanvantari, said “Dear son, Susrutha, listen now, the replies to your enquiries”.
Read – Classification Of Foods And Drinks – Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 27

Aharadravya – Articles of food

I.Dhanyavarga – group of corns (cereals)

1. Sali Varga – group of rice

Salibheda – Varieties of rice
तत्र, लोहितशालिकलमकर्दमकपाण्डुकसुगन्धकशकुनाहृतपुष्पाण्डकपुण्डरीकमहाशालिशीतभीरुकरोध्रपुष्पक- दीर्घशूककाञ्चनकमहिषमहाशूकहायनकदूषकमहादूषकप्रभृतयः शालयः ||४||
Lohitasali, Kalama, Kardamaka, Panduka, Sugandhaka, Sakunahrta, Puspandaka, Punadarika, Mahasali, Sitabhiruka, Rodhrapuspaka, Dirghasuka, Kancanaka, Mahisa, Mahasuka, Hayanaka, Dusaka, Mahadusaka and such others are varieties of Sali (rice).

मधुरा वीर्यतः शीता लघुपाका बलावहाः |
पित्तघ्नाल्पानिलकफाः स्निग्धा बद्धाल्पवर्चसः ||५||
Sali are sweet in taste, cold in potency, laghupaka, (pungent after digestion) bestow strength, mitigate pitta, increase vata and Kapha slightly, unctuous (creates unctuousness), cause constipation and less faeces.  

Note: – It has been stated earlier (chapter 40/10) that Vipaka are two viz Madhura (sweet) and Katu (pungent). The former is also called Gurupaka and the latter Laghupaka.

तेषां लोहितकः श्रेष्ठो दोषघ्नः शुक्रमूत्रलः |
चक्षुष्यो वर्णबलकृत् स्वर्यो हृद्यस्तृषापहः ||६||
व्रण्यो ज्वरहरश्चैव सर्वदोषविषापहः |
तस्मादल्पान्तरगुणाः क्रमशः शालयोऽवराः||७||
 Among these, Lohitaka is the best. It mitigates all the doshas, increases semen and urine, good for vision, color, strength, voice and heart (mind), relieves thirst, good for ulcers, cures fever, and mitigates all the Doshas and poison. Other varieties are inferior to this (Lohitaka) in properties in their respective order.
Read – Ayurveda Mahodadhi Dhanya Varga – Types Of Rice

Sastika – Paddy maturing in sixty days

षष्टिककाङ्गुकमुकुन्दकपीतकप्रमोदककाकलकासनपुष्पकमहाषष्टिकचूर्णककुरवककेदारप्रभृतयः षष्टिकाः ||८||
Sastika, Kanguka, Mukundaka, Pitaka, Pramodaka, Kakalaka, Asanapuspaka, Mahasastika, Curnaka, Kuravaka, Kedara and such others are sastika (rice of sixty-day maturity i.e., rice which grows and matures in sixty days).

रसे पाके च मधुराः शमना वातपित्तयोः |
शालीनां च गुणैस्तुल्या बृंहणाः कफशुक्रलाः ||९||
These are sweet both in taste and after digestion, mitigate vata and Pitta, similar in properties to Sali (rice), are stoutening (brmhana – bulk promoting) and increase Kapha and semen.

षष्टिकः प्रवरस्तेषां कषायानुरसो लघुः |
मृदुः स्निग्धस्त्रिदोषघ्नः स्थैर्यकृद्बलवर्धनः ||१०||
विपाके मधुरो ग्राही तुल्यो लोहितशालिभिः |११|
शेषास्त्वल्पान्तरास्तस्मात् षष्टिकाः क्रमशो गुणैः ||११||

Sastika is the best among the varieties of sastika, has astringent as secondary taste, light (easily digestible) soft, unctuous, mitigates all the three doshas, gives stability, increases strength, sweet after digestion, constipating and similar to Lohitasali in properties. Other kinds of sastika are inferior to sastika in their respective order.
Read – Navara Rice (Shashtika Shali) Qualities, Uses, Remedies, Research

Vrihi- paddy maturing in twelve months

कृष्णव्रीहिशालामुखजतुमुखनन्दीमुखलावाक्षकत्वरितककुक्कुटाण्डकपारावतकपाटलप्रभृतयो व्रीहयः ||१२||
Krsnavrihi, Salamukha, Jatamuka, Nandimukha, Lavaksaka, Tvaritaka, Kukkutandaka, Paravataka, Patala and such others are vrihi.

कषायमधुराः पाकेऽमधुरा वीर्यतोऽहिमाः |
अल्पाभिष्यन्दिनस्तुल्याः षष्टिकैर्बद्धवर्चसः ||१३||

Vrihi are astringent, sweet in taste, not sweet (pungent) after digestion, not cold (hot) in potency, increase moisture inside the tissues slightly, are constipating and similar to sastika rice in properties.

कृष्णव्रीहिर्वरस्तेषां कषायानुरसो लघुः |
तस्मादल्पान्तरगुणाः क्रमशो व्रीहयोऽपरे ||१४||

Krsnavrihi is best among these, has astringent as a secondary taste, and is light (easily digestible). The other kinds of Vrihi are inferior to this in properties in successive order.
Read – Importance Of Diet (Pathya Apathya) For Specific Diseases

Qualities of paddy grown in burnt soil

दग्धायामवनौ जाताः शालयो लघुपाकिनः |
कषाया बद्धविण्मूत्रा रूक्षाः श्लेष्मापकर्षणाः ||१५||
Paddy (rice) grown in burnt soil are laghupaki (light for digestion) astringent in taste, cause obstruction of faeces and urine, dry (cause dryness) and mitigates Kapha.

Properties of paddy grown in jangala pradesa – Arid land

स्थलजाः कफपित्तघ्नाः कषायाः कटुकान्वयाः |
किञ्चित्सतिक्तमधुराः पवनानलवर्धनाः ||१६||

Those grown in jangala (arid land) mitigate Kapha and pitta, are astringent and pungent after digestion and slightly bitter and sweet in primary taste and cause mild increase of vata and Pitta.

Qualities of paddy grown in kedara – marshy fields

कैदारा मधुरा वृष्या बल्याः पित्तनिबर्हणाः |
ईषत्कषायाल्पमला गुरवः कफशुक्रलाः ||१७||

Those grown in Kedara (marshy fields) are sweet, aphrodisiac, strengthening, mitigate pitta, slightly astringent in taste, produce less faeces, hard for digestion and increase Kapha and semen.
Read – Tasyashiteeya Adhyaya – Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 6th Chapter

Qualities of paddy sown repeatedly

रोप्यातिरोप्या लघवः शीघ्रपाका गुणोत्तराः |
अदाहिनो दोषहरा बल्या मूत्रविवर्धनाः ||१८||

Those sown once again and those some more than once are light (easy for digestion), undergo digestion quickly and superior in qualities respectively, do not cause heartburn (burning sensation in the stomach during digestion), causes increase of doshas, bestows strength and causes increase of (increased production of) urine.

Qualities of paddy grown from roots once harvested

शालयश्छिन्नरूढा ये रूक्षास्ते बद्धवर्चसः |
तिक्ताः कषायाः पित्तघ्ना लघुपाकाः कफापहाः ||१९||

Sali (paddy) which are grown from roots once harvested, are dry, cause binding of faeces, bitter and astringent, mitigate pitta, Laghupaka (light for digestion) and mitigate kapha.

विस्तरेणायमुद्दिष्टः शालिवर्गो हिताहितः |
Thus, it described in detail the suitable and unsuitable groups of Sali (rice).

इति शालिवर्गः
Thus ends the Sali-varga – group of rice

अथकुधान्यवर्गः।
Read – Quality Of Foods – Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthana 6 – Annaswaroopa

2. Kudhanya Varga

Group of inferior grains (millets)

तद्वत्कुधान्यमुद्रादिमाषादीनांचवक्ष्यते॥२०॥
Likewise, Kudhanya like Masa, Mudga, and such others will be described now

कोरदूषकश्यामाकनीवारशान्तनुवरकोद्दालकप्रियङ्गुमधूलिकानन्दीमुखी- कुरुविन्दगवेधुकसरबरुकतोद(य)पर्णीमुकुन्दकवेणुयवप्रभृतयः कुधान्यविशेषाः ||२१||
Koradusaka, Syamaka, Nivara, Santanu, Varaka, Uddalaka, Priyangu, Madhulika, Nandimukhi, Kuruvinda, Gavedhuka, Sara, Baruka, Toda(ya) parni, Mukundaka, Venuyava and others are Kudhanyas (inferior grains-millets).

उष्णाः कषायमधुरा रूक्षाः कटुविपाकिनः |
श्लेष्मघ्ना बद्धनिस्यन्दा वातपित्तप्रकोपणाः ||२२||
कषायमधुरस्तेषां शीतः पित्तापहः स्मृतः |
कोद्रवश्च सनीवारः श्यामाकश्च सशान्तनुः ||२३||
They are hot in potency, astringent, and sweet in taste, dry, pungent – after digestion, mitigate kapha, bind the urine and aggravate vata and pitta.
Kodrava, Nivara, syamaka and Santanu- are astringent, sweet in taste and mitigate pitta and cold in potency.

कृष्णा रक्ताश्च पीताश्च श्वेताश्चैव प्रियङ्गवः |
यथोत्तरं प्रधानाः स्यू रूक्षाः कफहराः स्मृताः ||२४||
Priyangu is four kinds – black, red, yellow, and white. They are successively superior (in qualities), are dry and mitigate Kapha.

मधूली मधुरा शीता स्निग्धा नन्दीमुखी तथा |
विशोषी तत्र भूयिष्ठं वरुकः समुकुन्दकः ||२५||

Madhuli is sweet, cold in potency and unctuous. Similarly, the NandiMukha, Varuka and Mukundaka create dryness especially.

रूक्षा वेणुयवा ज्ञेया वीर्योष्णा कटुपाकिनः |
बद्धमूत्राः कफहराः कषाया वातकोपनाः ||२६||
Venuyava is dry, hot in potency and pungent after digestion, binds urine, mitigates Kapha, astringent in taste and aggravates Vata.
Read – Millets Benefits, Qualities, Varieties, Research, Recipes

 3. Vaidalavarga

Group of legumes/ Pulses

मुद्गवनमुद्गकलायमकुष्ठमसूरमङ्गल्यचणकसतीनत्रिपुटकहरेण्वाढकीप्रभृतयो वैदलाः ||२७||
Mudga, Vanamudga, Kalaya, Makustaka, Mastuka, Mangalya, Canaka, Satina, Triputaka, Harenu, Adhaki and such others are Vaidala (pulses / legumes).

कषायमधुराः शीताः कटुपाका मरुत्कराः |
बद्धमूत्रपुरीषाश्च पित्तश्लेष्महरास्तथा ||२८||
These (pulses) are astringent-sweet in taste, cold in potency, pungent after digestion, aggravate vata, bind urine and faeces and mitigate pitta and Kapha.

नात्यर्थं वातलास्तेषु मुद्गा दृष्टिप्रसादनाः |
प्रधाना हरितास्तत्र वन्या मुद्गसमाः स्मृताः ||२९||
Among these, mudga does not aggravate vata greatly (aggravates slightly), bestows clear vision. The green colored variety is superior; Vana Mudga (wild variety) is similar to Mudga (common variety) in properties.
Read – Green Gram (Mung bean) Qualities, Uses, Remedies, Research

विपाके मधुराः प्रोक्ता मसूरा बद्धवर्चसः |३०|
Masura is sweet after digestion and causes constipation.

मकुष्ठकाः कृमिकराः कलायाः प्रचुरानिलाः ||३०||
Makusthaka causes worms, Kalaya aggravate Vata greatly.

आढकी कफपित्तघ्नी नातिवातप्रकोपणी |३१|
Adhaki mitigates kapha and pitta and does not aggravate vata greatly.
Read – Pigeon Pea (Tur Dal) – Uses, Qualities, Remedies, Research

वातलाः शीतमधुराः सकषाया विरूक्षणाः ||३१||
कफशोणितपित्तघ्नाश्चणकाः पुंस्त्वनाशनाः |
त एव घृतसंयुक्तास्त्रिदोषशमनाः परम् ||३२||
Canaka increases vata, cold in potency, sweet and slightly astringent in taste, causes dryness, mitigates kapha, rakta and pitta, diminishes virility in males; when combined with ghee it is the best for mitigation of all the three doshas.

हरेणवः सतीनाश्च विज्ञेया बद्धवर्चसः |३३|
Harenu and Satina are to be understood as binding the faeces.

ऋते मुद्गमसूराभ्यामन्ये त्वाध्मानकारकाः ||३३||
Except Mudga and masura, all others (pulses) produce flatulence (with distension).

माषो गुरुर्भिन्नपुरीषमूत्रः स्निग्धोष्णवृष्यो मधुरोऽनिलघ्नः |
सन्तर्पणः स्तन्यकरो विशेषाद्बलप्रदः शुक्रकफावहश्च ||३४||

Masha is heavy (difficult for digestion), breaks the faeces and urine, unctuous, hot in potency, aphrodisiac, sweet in taste, mitigates Vata; is nourishing, increases breast milk, bestows strength especially, and increases semen and kapha.

कषायभावान्न पुरीषभेदी न मूत्रलो नैव कफस्य कर्ता |
स्वादुर्विपाके मधुरोऽलसान्द्रः सन्तर्पणः स्तन्यरुचिप्रदश्च ||३५||
Alasandra, because of being astringent does not cause purgation, is neither a diuretic nor increases Kapha, sweet in taste and sweet even after digestion, nourishing, increases breast-milk and helps in enhancing taste.

माषैः समानं फलमात्मगुप्तमुक्तं च काकाण्डफलं तथैव |३६|
Atmagupta phala is similar to Masa in properties; so is, Kakanda Phala.

आरण्यमाषा गुणतः प्रदिष्टा रूक्षाः कषाया अविदाहिनश्च ||३६||
Aranya Masa is said to be dry, astringent and not causing heartburn.

उष्णः कुलत्थो रसतः कषायः कटुर्विपाके कफमारुतघ्नः |
शुक्राश्मरीगुल्मनिषूदनश्च साङ्ग्राहिकः पीनसकासहन्ता ||३७||
Kulattha is hot in potency, astringent in taste, pungent after digestion, mitigates Kapha and Vata, cures seminal calculus and abdominal tumors; is constipating, cures rhinitis and cough.

आनाहमेदोगुदकीलहिक्काश्वासापहः शोणितपित्तकृच्च |
कफस्य हन्ता नयनामयघ्नो विशेषतो वन्यकुलत्थ उक्तः ||३८||
Vanyakulattha cures distention of abdomen, obesity, piles, hiccup and dyspnoea, aggravates blood and pitta, and mitigates Kapha, cures eye diseases especially.

Tila – Sesame

ईषत्कषायो मधुरः सतिक्तः साङ्ग्राहिकः पित्तकरस्तथोष्णः |
तिलो विपाके मधुरो बलिष्ठः स्निग्धो व्रणे लेपन एव पथ्यः ||३९||
दन्त्योऽग्निमेधाजननोऽल्पमूत्रस्त्वच्योऽथ केश्योऽनिलहा गुरुश्च |
तिलेषु सर्वेष्वसितः प्रधानो मध्यः सितो हीनतरास्तथाऽन्ये ||४०||

Tila is slightly astringent, sweet and bitter, constipating, increases Pitta, a hot in potency, predominantly sweet ‘after digestion’, highly unctuous, best for application to wounds (as cold poultices), good for teeth, augments digestive fire and intelligence, reduces urine, good for the skin and hairs, mitigates vata and heavy (hard for digestion). Among all its varieties the black one is the best, white one moderate and others inferior.
Read – Sesame and Sesame Oil Benefits, Qualities, Remedies

Yava – Barley

यवः कषायो मधुरो हिमश्च कटुर्विपाके कफपित्तहारी |
व्रणेषु पथ्यस्तिलवच्च नित्यं प्रबद्धमूत्रो बहुवातवर्चाः ||४१||
स्थैर्याग्निमेधास्वरवर्णकृच्च सपिच्छिलः स्थूलविलेखनश्च |
मेदोमरुत्तृड्‌हरणोऽतिरूक्षः प्रसादनः शोणितपित्तयोश्च ||४२||
Yava is astringent, sweet and pungent after digestion, cold in potency, mitigates Kapha and pitta, good for wounds always like Tila; produces retention of urine greatly and increases flatus and faeces greatly. It bestows stability, digestive power, intelligence, good voice and color (complexion), is slightly slimy and causes scraping (of fat) in stout / fat individuals, mitigates fat, vata and thirst, is very dry (creates dryness) and purifies blood and pitta.

Atiyava

एभिर्गुणैर्हीनतरैस्तु किञ्चिद्विद्याद्यवेभ्योऽतियवानशेषैः |४३|
Atiyava is to be understood as slightly inferior in qualities in comparison to yava; so also, the other kinds.

Godhuma – wheat

गोधूम उक्तो मधुरो गुरुश्च बल्यः स्थिरः शुक्ररुचिप्रदश्च ||४३||
स्निग्धोऽतिशीतोऽनिलपित्तहन्ता सन्धानकृच्छ्लेष्मकरः सरश्च |४४|
Godhuma is said to be sweet, heavy (not easily digestible); bestows strength and stability, augments semen and taste, is unctuous, very cold in potency, mitigates vata and pitta, unites fractures, increases kapha, and is laxative.
Read – Wheat Uses, Health Benefits, Side Effects: Complete Ayurveda Details

Simba (foods belonging to simbi group)

रूक्षः कषायो विषशोषशुक्रबलासदृष्टिक्षयकृद्विदाही ||४४||
कटुर्विपाके मधुरस्तु शिम्बः प्रभिन्नविण्मारुतपित्तलश्च |
सितासिताः पीतकरक्तवर्णा भवन्ति येऽनेकविधास्तु शिम्बाः ||४५||

यथादितस्ते गुणतः प्रधाना ज्ञेयाः कटूष्णा रसपाकयोश्च |४६|

Simbi is dry, astringent, decreases poison, consumption, semen, balasa (kapha), causes diminution of vision and causes burning sensation (heartburn), has pungent ‘after digestion’, sweet in taste, breaks the faeces (causes its elimination) increases Vata and pitta.
Simbi is of (many colours) white, black, yellow and red colour. They are superior in the mentioned order. They are pungent in taste and ‘after digestion’ and hot in potency.

Saha dwaya and others

सहाद्वयं मूलकजाश्च शिम्बाः कुशिम्बिवल्लीप्रभवास्तु शिम्बाः ||४६||
ज्ञेया विपाके मधुरा रसे च बलप्रदाः पित्तनिबर्हणाश्च |४७|
Sahadvaya- two Kinds of saha (masaparni and mudgaparni), Mulakasimbi, kusimbi, Vallisimbi (borne by the creeper) are to be understood as sweet both in taste and taste after digestion, bestows strength and mitigate pitta.

Vaidalika Simba

विदाहवन्तश्च भृशं विरूक्षा विष्टभ्य जीर्यन्त्यनिलप्रदाश्च ||४७||
रुचिप्रदाश्चैव सुदुर्जराश्च सर्वे स्मृता वैदलिकास्तु शिम्बाः |४८|
Vaidalika simba of all kinds (moist / green pods of pulses-according to Dalhana) cause heartburn, very much dry (cause severe dryness) undergo digestion after long stasis in the alimentary tract, increase vata, help to increase taste and very difficult for digestion.
Read – Lentils (Masoor) – Uses, Medicinal Qualities, Remedies, Research

Kusumbha, Atasi, Siddhartaka

कटुर्विपाके कटुकः कफघ्नो विदाहिभावादहितः कुसुम्भः ||४८||
उष्णाऽतसी स्वादुरसाऽनिलघ्नी पित्तोल्बणा स्यात् कटुका विपाके |
पाके रसे चापि कटुः प्रदिष्टः सिद्धार्थकः शोणितपित्तकोपी ||४९||
तीक्ष्णोष्णरूक्षः कफमारुतघ्नस्तथागुणश्चासितसर्षपोऽपि |५०|
Kusumbha is pungent in taste and taste after digestion, it mitigates Kapha is unsuitable to health because of causing burning sensation (heartburn).
Atasi is hot in potency, sweet in taste, mitigates vata, increases pitta and pungent after digestion.
Siddharthaka is said to be pungent both in taste and after digestion, aggravates blood and pitta.
Asita (black) Sarsapa is penetrating, hot in potency, dry, mitigates Kapha and Vata.
Read – Safflower, Oil – Carthamus tinctorius Benefits, Remedies, Side Effects

Apathya Dhanya – Unsuitable corns

अनार्तवं व्याधिहतमपर्यागतमेव च |
अभूमिजं नवं चापि न धान्यं गुणवत् स्मृतम् ||५०||
नवं धान्यमभिष्यन्दि लघु संवत्सरोषितम् |
विदाहि गुरु विष्टम्भि विरूढं दृष्टिदूषणम् ||५१||

Corns (cereals and pulses) which are unseasoned, affected by diseases, not fully mature, grown in unhealthy soil and freshly harvested are not good in properties. Freshly harvested grains cause an increase of moisture in the tissues and those old by one year are light (easily digestible).
Virudha (grains which have lost the capacity to germinate – according to Dalhana) cause burning sensation (heartburn), are heavy, (not easily digestible), stay long in the stomach without digestion and vitiate vision.

शाल्यादेः सर्षपान्तस्य विविधस्यास्य भागशः |
कालप्रमाणसंस्कारमात्राः सम्परिकीर्तिताः ||५२||
So far, we have described different kinds of corn commencing with Sali and ending with sarsapa, with brief mention of duration of time, processing and quality to be used.

इति कुधान्यवर्गः |
Thus ends Dhanya Varga – group of corns

अथ मांसवर्गः|

II. Mamsavarga- group of meats

अत ऊर्ध्वं मांसवर्गानुपदेक्ष्यामः; तद्यथा- जलेशया, आनूपा, ग्राम्याः, क्रव्यभुज, एकशफा, जाङ्गलाश्चेति षण्मांसवर्गा भवन्ति |
एतेषां वर्गाणामुत्तरोत्तरा प्रधानतमाः |
ते पुनर्द्विविधा जाङ्गला आनूपाश्चेति |
तत्र जाङ्गलवर्गोऽष्टविधः |
तद्यथा- जङ्घाला, विष्किराः, प्रतुदा, गुहाशयाः, प्रसहाः, पर्णमृगा, बिलेशया, ग्राम्याश्चेति |
तेषां जङ्घालविष्किरौ प्रधानतमौ ||५३||
Further, we will describe Mamsavarga – group of meats; as follows-
Mamsavarga – (meat group) is of six divisions such as

  1. Jalesaya – meat of animals which live in water.
  2. Anupa – meat of animals living in marshy regions.
  3. Gramya – meat of domestic animals.
  4. Kravyabhuja – meat of carnivorous animals.
  5. Ekasapha – meat of animals having a single (unsplit) hoof.
  6. Jangala – meat of animals living in desert-like lands.

Each successive group is superior (better in properties).
Each one of these has two sub-divisions viz 1. Jangala and 2. Anupa.
Read – Sheep Meat and Sheep Milk Benefits – Ayurveda Details

Again, Jangala Varga is of eight kinds –

  1. Jangala – animals living in arid / desert like regions
  2. Viskira – birds which scratch the ground scatter the food and then pick up (gallinaceous birds).
  3. Pratuda – animals and birds which peck the food by their beak or mouth.
  4. Guhasaya – Animals and birds which live in caves (cave dwellers).
  5. Prasaha – animals and birds which tear the food with beak or teeth and eat- Raptors).
  6. Parnamrga – animals and birds which live on trees (tree dwellers)
  7. Bilesaya – animals which live in burrows.
  8. Gramya – animals which are domesticated.

Among these, Janghala and Viskira groups are most important.
Read – Goat Meat Benefits As Per Ayurveda

1.Jangala

Group of swift runners – especially deers

तावेणहरिणर्क्षकुरङ्गकरालकृतमालशरभश्वदंष्ट्रापृषतचारुष्करमृगमातृकाप्रभृतयो जङ्घाला मृगाः कषाया मधुरा लघवो वातपित्तहरास्तीक्ष्णा हृद्या बस्तिशोधनाश्च ||५४||
Ena, harina, Rksa, Kuranga, Karala, Krtamala, Sarabha, Svadamstra, Prsata, Caruskara, Mrgamatraka and such other are swift footed animals (deers of different kinds).
Meat of these (generally) is astringent – sweet in taste, light (easily digestible), mitigates vata and pitta; is penetrating, good for the heart (pleasant) and cleanse the urinary bladder.

Ena – black deer

कषायमधुरो हृद्यः पित्तासृक्कफरोगहा |
सङ्ग्राही रोचनो बल्यस्तेषामेणो ज्वरापहः ||५५||
 Among these, meat of Ena (black deer) is astringent, sweet in taste, good for heart, cures diseases produced by Pitta, Rakta and Kapha, constipating, improves taste perception, strengthening and cures fevers.

Harina – brown deer

मधुरो मधुरः पाके दोषघ्नोऽनलदीपनः |
शीतलो बद्धविण्मूत्र सुगन्धिर्हरिणो लघुः ||५६||
Meat of Harina (coppery / brown deer) is sweet in taste and taste after digestion, mitigates all the Doshas, kindles digestion, cold in potency, causes retention of faeces and urine, has pleasant odor and light (easily digestible).

Ena, Harina, Kuranga – differences

एणः कृष्णस्तयोर्ज्ञेयो हरिणस्ताम्र उच्यते |
यो न कृष्णो न ताम्रश्च कुरङ्गः सोऽभिधीयते ||५७||
The black-coloured deer is called Ena and coppery coloured deer is called Harina. The deer which is neither black nor coppery is called kuranga.

Mrgamatruka

शीताऽसृक्पित्तशमनी विज्ञेया मृगमातृका |
सन्निपातक्षयश्वासकासहिक्कारुचिप्रणुत् ||५८||
Meat of Mrgamatruka is to be understood as cold in potency, mitigates blood and pitta and sannipata (aggravation of all three doshas simultaneously), consumption, dyspnoea, cough, hiccup, and loss of taste / appetite.
Read – Buffalo Meat, Buffalo Milk and Buffalo Products – Benefits and Ayurvedic Explanation

2. Viskira examples

लावतित्तिरिकपिञ्जलवर्तीरवर्तिकावर्तकनप्तृकावार्तीकचकोरकलविङ्कमयूरक्रकरोपचक्र- कुक्कुटसारङ्गशतपत्रकुतित्तिरिकुरुवाहकयवालकप्रभृतयस्त्र्याहला विष्किराः ||५९||
Lava, tittiri, Kapinjala, vartira, Vartika, Vartaka, naptraka, Vartika, Cakora, Kalavinka, Mayura, krakara, Upacakra, Kukkuktua, Saranga, Satapatra, Kutittiri, Kuruvahaka, Yavalaka and such others which are tryahala (scratch the ground thrice) are called Viskira.

Lava

लघवः शीतमधुराः कषाया दोषनाशनाः |६०|
सङ्ग्राही दीपनश्चैव कषायमधुरो लघुः |

लावः कटुविपाकश्च सन्निपाते तु पूजितः ||६०||

Meat of these generally is easily digestible, cold in potency, sweet and astringent in taste and mitigates all the doshas.
Meat of lava is constipating, kindles digestion, astringent and sweet in taste, light (easily digestible), pungent ‘after digestion’ and best for sannipata (aggravation of all the Doshas simultaneously).

Tittira, Kapinjala, Gaura Tittira

ईषद्गुरूष्णमधुरो वृष्यो मेधाग्निवर्धनः |
तित्तिरिः सर्वदोषघ्नो ग्राही वर्णप्रसादनः ||६१||
रक्तपित्तहरः शीतो लघुश्चापि कपिञ्जलः |
कफोत्थेषु च रोगेषु मन्दवाते च शस्यते ||६२||
हिक्काश्वासानिलहरो विशेषाद्गौरतित्तिरिः |६३|
The meat of Tittira is slightly heavy (difficult to digest), hot in potency, sweet in taste, aphrodisiac, enhances intellect and digestion power, destroys (mitigates) tridoshas (aggravation of all the three doshas), constipating and enhances the quality of colour (complexion).
Meat of Kapinjala destroys / mitigates bleeding diseases, is cold in potency, and light (for digestion). It is also best suited for diseases produced by kapha and mild aggravation of vata.
The meat of gaura tittira mainly cures hiccough, dyspnoea and aggravated vata (vata disorders).
Read – Vata Dosha – Introduction, 40 Things To Know

Krakara

वातपित्तहरा वृष्या मेधाग्निबलवर्धनाः ||६३||
लघवः क्रकरा हृद्यास्तथा चैवोपचक्रकाः |६४|
Meat of Krakara, mitigates Vata and Pitta, is aphrodisiac, increasing the power of intelligence and digestion, easily digestible and good for the heart (or mind), similar to that of Upacakraka.

Mayura

कषायः स्वादुलवणस्त्वच्यः केश्योऽरुचौ हितः ||६४||
मयूरः स्वरमेधाग्निदृक्श्रोत्रेन्द्रियदार्ढ्यकृत् |६५|
Meat of Mayura is astringent, sweet and salty in taste, good for the skin and hairs, beneficial in anorexia, bestows strength to voice, intelligence, digestive power, vision and hearing.

Vanya and Gramya Kukkuta

स्निग्धोष्णोऽनिलहा वृष्यः स्वेदस्वरबलावहः ||६५||
बृंहणः कुक्कुटो वन्यस्तद्वद्ग्राम्यो गुरुस्तु सः |
वातरोगक्षयवमीविषमज्वरनाशनः ||६६||
Meat of Vanya Kukkuta is unctuous, hot in potency, mitigates Vata, aphrodisiac, produces sweating, strengthens the voice and stouten the body; that of Gramya Kukkuta is hard for digestion cures, diseases of vata, consumption, vomiting and intermittent fever.

3. Pratuda – group of peckers

कपोतपारावतभृङ्गराजपरभृतकोयष्टिककुलिङ्गगृहकुलिङ्गगोक्ष्वेडकडिण्डिमाणवकशतपत्रक- मातृनिन्दकभेदाशिशुकसारिकावल्गुलीगिरिशालट्वालट्टूषकसुगृहाखञ्जरीटहारीतदात्यूहप्रभृतयः, प्रतुदाः ||६७||
Kapota, Paravata, Bhrngaraja, parabhrta, Koyastika, Kulinga, Grhakulinga, Goksvedaka, Satapatraka, Matrnindaka, Bhedasi, suka, Sarika, Valguli, Girisa, Latva, Lattusaka, Sugrha, Khanjarita, Harita, Datyuha and such others are Pratuda (which peck the food with their beak and then swallow).

कषायमधुरा रूक्षाः फलाहारा मरुत्कराः |
पित्तश्लेष्महराः शीता बद्धमूत्राल्पवर्चसः ||६८||
Meat of Pratuda birds generally is astringent –sweet in taste, aggravates Vata because of eating fruits, mitigates pitta and kapha, cold in potency, binds urination, defection and produces less of faeces.

सर्वदोषकरस्तेषां भेदाशी मलदूषकः |६९|
कषायस्वादुलवणो गुरुः काणकपोतकः ||६९||

Among these, meat of Bhedasi aggravates all the dosas and vitiates the faeces.
Meat of Kanakapota is astringent, sweet and salty in taste and heavy for digestion.

Paravata

रक्तपित्तप्रशमनः कषायविशदोऽपि च |
विपाके मधुरश्चापि गुरुः पारावतः स्मृतः ||७०||
Meat of Paravata mitigates bleeding diseases, is astringent and non- slimy, sweet after digestion and hard for digestion.

Kulinga and Grhakulinga

कुलिङ्गो मधुरः स्निग्धः कफशुक्रविवर्धनः |७१|
रक्तपित्तहरो वेश्मकुलिङ्गस्त्वतिशुक्रलः ||७१||

Meat of Kulinga is sweet, unctuous and increases Kapha and semen; that of Grhakulinga mitigates bleeding diseases and increases semen greatly.

 4. Guhasaya – group of cave dwellers

सिंहव्याघ्रवृकतरक्ष्वृक्षद्वीपिमार्जारशृगालमृगेर्वारुकप्रभृतयो गुहाशयाः ||७२||
Simha, Vyaghra, Vrka, Taraksu, rksa, dvipi, marjara, Sragala, Mrgevaruka and such others are Guhasya (animals which live in caves).

मधुरा गुरवः स्निग्धा बल्या मारुतनाशनाः |
उष्णवीर्या हिता नित्यं नेत्रगुह्यविकारिणाम् ||७३||
Meat of cave dwellers is generally sweet, heavy (hard for digestion), unctuous, bestows strength, mitigates Vata, hot in potency and beneficial always for persons suffering from diseases of eyes and genitals.

5. Prasaha

Birds which tear their food

काककङ्ककुररचाषभासशशघात्युलूकचिल्लिश्येनगृध्रप्रभृतयः प्रसहाः ||७४||
Kaka, Kanka, Casa, Bhasa, Sasaghati, Uluka, Cilli, Syena, Grdhra and suchso these are Prasaha (carnivorous birds which tear their food and then swallow).

एते सिंहादिभिः सर्वे समाना वायसादयः |
रसवीर्यविपाकेषु विशेषाच्छोषिणे हिताः ||७५||
Meat of birds of this group are similar to that of simha etc, (guhasaya group) in taste, potency and taste after digestion and beneficial especially to patients of consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis).
Read – Rajayakshma – Charaka Chikitsa 8

6. Parnamrga- Tree dwellers

मद्गुमूषिकवृक्षशायिकावकुशपूतिघासवानरप्रभृतयः पर्णमृगाः ||७६||
Madu, musika, Vrksasayaka, Avakusa, Putighasa, Vanara and such others are parnamrga (animals which dwell on trees).

मधुरा गुरवो वृष्याश्चक्षुष्याः शोषिणे हिताः |
सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाश्च कासार्शःश्वासनाशनाः ||७७||
Meat of these animals generally is sweet, heavy (hard for digestion), aphrodisiac, good for vision, beneficial to patients of consumption, help easy elimination of urine and faeces and cures cough, dyspnoea and piles.

7. Bilesaya – hole / burrow dwellers

श्वाविच्छल्यकगोधाशशवृषदंशलोपाकलोमशकर्णकदलीमृगप्रियकाजगरसर्पमूषिकनकुलमहाबभ्रुप्रभृतयो बिलेशयाः ||७८||
Svavid, salyaka, Godha, Sasa, Vrsadamsa, lopaka, Lomasakarna, Kadali, Mrgapriyaka, Ajagara, sarpa, Musika, Nakula, Mahabadhru, and such others are bilesaya (animals which live in holes / burrows).

वर्चोमूत्रं संहतं कुर्युरेते वीर्ये चोष्णाः पूर्ववत् स्वादुपाकाः |
वातं हन्युः श्लेष्मपित्ते च कुर्युः स्निग्धाः कासश्वासकार्श्यापहाश्च ||७९||
Meat of these animals generally, make the faeces and urine thick / hard; is hot in potency, sweet after digestion, mitigates Vata, aggravates Kapha and pitta, unctuous and cures cough, dysponea, and emaciation (consumption).

कषायमधुरस्तेषां शशः पित्तकफापहः |
नातिशीतलवीर्यत्वाद्वातसाधारणो मतः ||८०||
Among these, meat of Sasa is astringent, sweet in taste, mitigates Pitta and Kapha, because of being not very cold in potency, it is moderate to Vata (causes neither increase nor decrease).

Godha, Salyaka, Priyaka, Ajagara, Sarpa, Darvikar

गोधा विपाके मधुरा कषायकटुका स्मृता |
वातपित्तप्रशमनी बृंहणी बलवर्धनी ||८१||
शल्यकः स्वादुपित्तघ्नो लघुः शीतो विषापहः |
प्रियको मारुते पथ्योऽजगरस्त्वर्शसां हितः ||८२||
दुर्नामानिलदोषघ्नाः कृमिदूषीविषापहाः |
चक्षुष्या मधुराः पाके सर्पा मेधाग्निवर्धनाः ||८३||
दर्वीकरा दीपकाश्च तेषूक्ताः कटुपाकिनः |
मधुराश्चातिचक्षुष्याः सृष्टविण्मूत्रमारुताः ||८४||
Meat of Godha is sweet after digestion, while astringent and pungent in taste, mitigates vata and pitta, brings about stoutness of the body and increases strength.
Meat of salyaka is sweet, mitigates pitta, light / easy for digestion, cold in potency, and mitigates poison.
Meat of priyaka is beneficial in aggravation of vata.
Meat of Ajagara is beneficial in piles.
Meat of sarpa mitigates piles, diseases of Vata, worms and weak poisons; good for vision, sweet after digestion; and enhances intellect and digestion power.
Meat of Darvikara (hooded snakes) and dipaka (snakes with stripes) are pungent after digestion, sweet in taste, highly beneficial to eyes (vision) and cause elimination of faeces, urine, and flatus.
Read – Bad Food Combinations and Solution as Per Ayurveda

8. Gramya – group of domestic animals

अश्वाश्वतरगोखरोष्ट्रबस्तोरभ्रमेदःपुच्छकप्रभृतयो ग्राम्याः ||८५||
Asva, Asvatara, Go, khara, Ustra, Basta, urabhra, medahpucchaka and such others are Gramya (animals living in villages / domestic animals).

ग्राम्या वातहराः सर्वे बृंहणाः कफपित्तलाः |
मधुरा रसपाकाभ्यां दीपना बलवर्धनाः ||८६||
Meat of all domestic animals generally mitigates Vata, is stoutening, increases Kapha and pitta, sweet both in taste and after digestion, kindles digestion and increases strength.

Chaga

नातिशीतो गुरुः स्निग्धो मन्दपित्तकफः स्मृतः |
छगलस्त्वनभिष्यन्दी तेषां पीनसनाशनः ||८७||
Among these, meat of Chaga is not very cold in potency, heavy (hard for digestion), unctuous, increases pitta and Kapha slightly, not going to increase moisture in the tissues and cures rhinitis.

Urabhra and Medahpucchaka

बृंहणं मांसमौरभ्रं पित्तश्लेष्मावहं गुरु |
मेदःपुच्छोद्भवं वृष्यमौरभ्रसदृशं गुणैः ||८८||

Meat of Urabhra, brings about stoutness of the body, slightly increases pitta and Kapha and is hard for digestion.
Meat of Medahpucchaka is aphrodisiac and similar in properties to meat of urabha.
Read – Cow’s Milk Benefits According To Ayurveda

Go mamsa

श्वासकासप्रतिश्यायविषमज्वरनाशनम् |
श्रमात्यग्निहितं गव्यं पवित्रमनिलापहम् ||८९||
Meat of Go (cow / ox) cures dyspnoea, coughs, common cold, intermittent fevers, well suited in fatigue, hyper activity of digestive fire, and mitigates vata.

Ekasapha and Jangala Varga

औरभ्रवत्सलवणं मांसमेकशफोद्भवम् |
अल्पाभिष्यन्द्ययं वर्गो जाङ्गलः समुदाहृतः ||९०||

Meat of animals of single hoof is similar of urabhra and is slightly salty.
Meat of animals of Jangala Varga (animals of arid / desert-like regions) is described as creating a slight increase of moisture inside the tissues.

दूरे जनान्तनिलया दूरे पानीयगोचराः |
ये मृगाश्च विहङ्गाश्च तेऽल्पाभिष्यन्दिनो मताः ||९१||
अतीवासन्ननिलयाः समीपोदकगोचराः |
ये मृगाश्च विहङ्गाश्च महाभिष्यन्दिनस्तु ते ||९२||
Meat of animals which are living away from human habitation, and birds living away from reservoirs of water is considered as increasing moisture in the tissues slightly, where as meat of animals and birds living very much near to human habitation and reservoirs of water is considered as increasing the moisture greatly.
Read – Pashu Ayurveda: Description Of Ancient Books On Animal Care

1. Anupa Varga

Group of animals of marshy regions

आनूपवर्गस्तु पञ्चविधः |
तद्यथा- कूलचराः, प्लवाः, कोषस्थाः, पादिनो, मत्स्याश्चेति ||९३||
Anupavarga (group of animals living in marshy regions), is of five kinds such as Kulacara, Plava, Kosastha, Padina and Matsya.

a. Kulacara- Animals which roam near river banks

तत्र गजगवयमहिषरुरुचमरसृमररोहितवराहखड्गिगोकर्णकालपुच्छकोद्रन्यङ्क्वरण्यगवयप्रभृतयः कूलचराः पशवः ||९४||
Gaja, Gavaya, Mahisa, Ruru, Camara, srmara, Rohita, Varaha, Khadgi, Gokarna, Kalapucchaka, Udra, Nyanku, Aranyagavaya and such others are Kulacarapasu (animals and cattle which roam on river banks).

वातपित्तहरा वृष्या मधुरा रसपाकयोः |
शीतला बलिनः स्निग्धा मूत्रलाः कफवर्धनः ||९५||
Meat of these generally mitigates Vata and Pittta, is aphrodisiac, sweet both in taste and taste after digestion, cold in potency, increases strength, is unctuous, diuretic and increases Kapha.

Gaja

विरूक्षणो लेखनश्च वीर्योष्णः पित्तदूषणः |
स्वाद्वम्ललवणस्तेषां गजः श्लेष्मानिलापहः ||९६||
Among these, meat of Gaja causes dryness and scarification (scraping in nature), hot in potency, aggravates Pitta, sweet, sour and salt in taste, and mitigates Kapha and Vata.

Gavaya

गवयस्य तु मांसं हि स्निग्धं मधुरकासजित् |
विपाके मधुरं चापि व्यवायस्य तु वर्धनम् ||९७||
Meat of Gavaya is unctuous, sweet and cures cough, sweet after digestion and increases the capacity of copulation.

Mahisa

स्निग्धोष्णमधुरो वृष्यो महिषस्तर्पणो गुरुः |
निद्रापुंस्त्वबलस्तन्यवर्धनो मांसदार्ढ्यकृत् ||९८||
Meat of Mahisa is unctuous, hot in potency, sweet, aphrodisiac, gives satisfaction (nourishment), heavy (hard for digestion), increases sleep, male sexual power, strength, and breast milk and gives stability to the muscles.

Ruru

रुरोर्मांसं समधुरं कषायानुरसं स्मृतम् |
वातपित्तोपशमनं गुरु शुक्रविवर्धनम् ||९९||
Meat of Ruru is slightly sweet, astringent in secondary taste, mitigates Vata and pitta, heavy (hard for digestion) and increases semen.

Camara

तथा चमरमांसं तु स्निग्धं मधुरकासजित् |
विपाके मधुरं चापि वातपित्तप्रणाशनम् ||१००||
Meat of Camara is unctuous, sweet, cures cough, sweet after digestion and mitigates Vata and pitta.
Read – How To Balance Pitta Vata Dosha? 6 Points To Consider

Samara

सृमरस्य तु मांसं च कषायानुरसं स्मृतम् |
वातपित्तोपशमनं गुरु शुक्रविवर्धनम् ||१०१||
Meat of Srmara has astringent as a secondary taste, mitigates Vata and Pitta, is hard for digestion and increases semen.

Varaha

स्वेदनं बृंहणं वृष्यं शीतलं तर्पणं गुरु |
श्रमानिलहरं स्निग्धं वाराहं बलवर्धनम् ||१०२||
Meat of varaha causes sweating, bestows stoutness, is aphrodisiac, cold in potency, nourishing, heavy (hard for digestion), mitigates fatigue, and vata, is unctuous and increases strength.

Khadga

कफघ्नं खड्गिपिशितं कषायमनिलापहम् |
पित्र्यं पवित्रमायुष्यं बद्धमूत्रं विरूक्षणम् ||१०३||
Meat of Khadga mitigates Kapha, and vata, is astringent, ideal for the pitrus (to be offered to the dead as oblation), sacred (auspicious), increases life-span, binds urine and causes dryness.

Gokarna

गोकर्णमांसं मधुरं स्निग्धं मृदु कफावहम् |
विपाके मधुरं चापि रक्तपित्तविनाशनम् ||१०४||
Meat of Gokarna is sweet, unctuous, soft, increases kapha, sweet after digestion and cures bleeding disease.

b. Plava- Birds which swim in water

हंससारसक्रौञ्चचक्रवाककुररकादम्बकारण्डवजीवञ्जीवकबकबलाकापुण्डरीकप्लवशरारीमुख- नन्दीमुखमद्गूत्क्रोशकाचाक्षमल्लिकाक्षशुक्लाक्षपुष्करशायिकाकोनालकाम्बुकुक्कुटिकामेघरावश्वेतवारलप्रभृतयः प्लवाः सङ्घातचारिणः ||१०५||
Hamsa, sarasa, Kraunca, Cakravaka, Kurara, Kadamba, Karandava, Jivanjivaka, Baka, Balaka, Pundarika, Plava, Sararimuka, Nandimuka, Madgu, Utkrosa, Kacaksa, Mallikaksa, Suklaksa, Puskarasayika, Konalaka, Ambukukkutika, megharava, Svetavarala and such others are Plava (swimmers) which move in herds.

रक्तपित्तहराः शीताः स्निग्धा वृष्या मरुज्जितः |
सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाश्च मधुरा रसपाकयोः ||१०६||
Meat of these birds generally, mitigates aggravation of blood and pitta (or bleeding diseases), cold in potency, unctuous, aphrodisiac, mitigates vata, eliminates urine and feces, sweet in taste and even after digestion.

Hamsa

गुरूष्णमधुरः स्निग्धः स्वरवर्णबलप्रदः |
बृंहणः शुक्रलस्तेषां हंसो वातविकारनुत् ||१०७||
Meat of Hamsa is hard for digestion, hot in potency, sweet, unctuous, bestows strength to voice and color / complexion, is stoutening, increases semen and cures diseases produced by vata.

c. Kosatha – Animals having a shell

शङ्खशङ्खनकशुक्तिशम्बूकभल्लूकप्रभृतयः कोशस्थाः ||१०८||
Sankha, Sankhanaka, Suktisambuka, bhalluka and such others are Kosastha animals living in shells.
Read – Snail (Nakha) – Benefits, Qualities, Types, Indications

d. Padina – Animals having legs

कूर्मकुम्भीरकर्कटककृष्णकर्कटकशिशुमारप्रभृतयः पादिनः ||१०९||
Kurma, Kumbhira, Karkataka, Krsna Karkataka, Sisumara and such others are Padina – aquatic animals with legs.

शङ्खकूर्मादयः स्वादुरसपाका मरुन्नुदः |
शीताः स्निग्धा हिताः पित्ते वर्चस्याः श्लेष्मवर्धनाः ||११०||

Meat of Sankha etc, (Kosastha) and kurma etc. (padina) is sweet both in taste and after digestion, mitigates Vata, cold in potency, unctuous, good for Pitta aggravation, increases faeces and Kapha.
Read – Conch shell (Shankha) Shodhana, Marana, Properties, Dosage

कृष्णकर्कटकस्तेषां बल्यः कोष्णोऽनिलापहः |
शुक्लः सन्धानकृत् सृष्टविण्मूत्रोऽनिलपित्तहा ||१११||
Meat of black Karkataka is strengthened, slightly hot in potency, and mitigates Vata.
Meat of white Karkataka unites fractures, eliminates faeces and urine, and mitigates Vata and Pitta.

e. Matsya – Fishes

मत्स्यास्तु द्विविधा नादेयाः सामुद्राश्च ||११२||
Matsya (fishes) is of two kinds, Nadeya (of rivers) and samudra (of oceans).

तत्र नादेयाः- रोहितपाठीनपाटलाराजीववर्मिगोमत्स्यकृष्णमत्स्यवागुञ्जारमुरलसहस्रदंष्ट्रप्रभृतयः ||११३||
Rohita, Pathina, Patala, Rajiva, Varmi, Gomatsya, Krsnamatsya, Vagunjara, Murala, Sahasradamstra and such others are Nadeya mastya (riverine fish).

नादेया मधुरा मत्स्या गुरवो मारुतापहाः |
रक्तपित्तकराश्चोष्णा वृष्याः स्निग्धाल्पवर्चसः ||११४||

Riverine fish are sweet, heavy (hard for digestion), mitigates Vata, aggravates Rakta and pitta (or produce bleeding disease), hot in potency, aphrodisiac, unctuous and produce less of faeces.

Rohita fish

कषायानुरसस्तेषां शष्पशैवालभोजनः |
रोहितो मारुतहरो नात्यर्थं पित्तकोपनः ||११५||
Among these Rohita fish eats grass and algae, is astringent in secondary taste, mitigates vata and does not aggravate pitta greatly.

Pathina and Murala fish

पाठीनः श्लेष्मलो वृष्यो निद्रालुः पिशिताशनः |
दूषयेद्रक्तपित्तं तु कुष्ठरोगं करोत्यसौ |
मुरलो बृंहणो वृष्यः स्तन्यश्लेष्मकरस्तथा ||११६||
Pathina fish increases Kapha, is aphrodisiac, fish sleeps always and feeds on meat, so aggravates blood and pitta and produces leprosy (and some other skin diseases).
Murala fish is stoutening, aphrodisiac, increases breast milk and Kapha.

Qualities of fishes born in lakes and ponds

सरस्तडागसम्भूताः स्निग्धाः स्वादुरसाः स्मृताः |
महाह्रदेषु बलिनः, स्वल्पेऽम्भस्यबलाः स्मृताः ||११७||
Fish born in lakes and ponds are unctuous and sweet in taste; those born in big lakes are strong and those born in less water have very little strength.
Read – Fish Benefits, Side Effects – Ayurveda Details

Examples of sea fishes (samudra matsya)

तिमितिमिङ्गिलकुलिशपाकमत्स्यनिरुलनन्दिवार(रु)लकमकरगर्गरचन्द्रकमहामीनराजीवप्रभृतयः सामुद्राः ||११८||
Timi, timingila, kulisa, pakamatsya, nirula, nandivaralaka, makara, Gargara, Candraka, mahamina, Rajiva and such others are samudra Mastya (sea /marine fish).

Qualities of marine fish (samudra matsya)

सामुद्रा गुरवः स्निग्धा मधुरा नातिपित्तलाः |
उष्णा वातहरा वृष्या वर्चस्याः श्लेष्मवर्धनाः ||११९||
बलावहा विशेषेण मांसाशित्वात् समुद्रजाः |१२०|
Marine fish are heavy (hard for digestion) unctuous, sweet, do not aggravate Pitta greatly, hot in potency, mitigates Vata, aphrodisiac, increase faeces and kapha; because sea fish are carnivorous, they bestow strength to the body especially.

Differences between riverine and marine fishes

समुद्रजेभ्यो नादेया बृंहणत्वाद्गुणोत्तराः ||१२०||
तेषामप्यनिलघ्नत्वाच्चौण्ट्यकौप्यौ गुणोत्तरौ |
स्निग्धत्वात् स्वादुपाकत्वात्तयोर्वाप्या गुणाधिकाः ||१२१||

Riverine fish being more stoutening for the body hence are better in properties than marine fish. Even among them (Riverine fish) those which are born in pits and wells are superior because of mitigating vata. Those born in wells being unctuous and sweet after digestion are more superior in properties.

नादेया गुरवो मध्ये यस्मात् पुच्छास्यचारिणः |
सरस्तडागजानां तु विशेषेण शिरो लघु ||१२२||
अदूरगोचरा यस्मात्तस्मादुत्सोदपानजाः |
किञ्चिन्मुक्त्वा शिरोदेशमत्यर्थं गुरवस्तु ते ||१२३||
अधस्ताद्गुरवो ज्ञेया मत्स्याः सागरसम्भवाः |
उरोविचरणात्तेषां पूर्वमङ्गं लघु स्मृतम् ||१२४||

Since riverine fishes’ swim with the help of their tail and face, their middle part is heavy. The fishes which are born in streams and springs taking their origin from the hills / mountain tops do not move long distances. These fishes are heavier in their entire body except their heads.
The fishes which dwell in lakes are heavy in their lower portions. They move (swim) with the help of their front portion and hence the front portion of these fishes are lighter.

इत्यानूपो महाष्यन्दी मांसवर्ग उदीरितः ||१२५||
Thus, we described the meats of animals of marshy and aquatic regions which produce more moisture inside the tissue.

Abhaksya mamsa – meat unfit for partaking

तत्र शुष्कपूतिव्याधिविषसर्पहतदिग्धविद्धजीर्णकृशबालानामसात्म्यचारिणां च मांसान्यभक्ष्याणि, यस्माद्विगतव्यापन्नापहतपरिणताल्पासम्पूर्णवीर्यत्वाद्दोषकराणि भवन्ति; एभ्योऽन्येषामुपादेयं मांसमिति ||१२६||
The below mentioned kinds of meat are unfit for consumption i.e. the meat – 

  • which is dry,
  • having bad smell,
  • of animals dead from diseases, poison, snake bite, and poisoned weapon;
  • of animals which are old, emaciated, very young and which consume unaccustomed foods (or which move about in unhabituated places)

This is because the meat which is dry has lost all its juices (nutritive essence). The meat of dead animals and birds (or killed unnaturally) or those having a bad smell undergo bad changes (destruction of their potency). The meat afflicted by poison, snake poison and poisoned weapons would have lost its potency. The meat of old animals will have their potency and essence in a transformed form which is not conducive. The meat of the animals which are young (underdeveloped), emaciated will have deficit meat and incomplete potency (not have full strength) and are going to aggravate the doshas. Hence meat other than these should be consumed.
Read – Samudra Fen – Cuttle Fish Bone Benefits, Research, Side Effects

Effect of the above said types of meat

अरोचकं प्रतिश्यायं गुरु शुष्कं प्रकीर्तितम् |
विषव्याधिहतं मृत्युं बालं छर्दिं च कोपयेत् ||१२७||
कासश्वासकरं वृद्धं त्रिदोषं व्याधिदूषितम् |
क्लिन्नमुत्क्लेशजननं कृशं वातप्रकोपणम् ||१२८||
Dried meat produces anorexia and nasal catarrh and is heavy (hard to digest).
Meat of animals dead by poison and diseases causes death.
Meat of young animals aggravates (worsen) vomiting.
Meat of old animals produces cough and dyspnoea.
Meat of the diseased animal aggravates all three Doshas.
Meat which is drenched (moist) produces nausea.
Meat of the emaciated animal aggravates Vata.

Bhaksya mamsa – Meat suitable for partaking

स्त्रियश्चतुष्पात्सु, पुमांसो विहङ्गेषु, महाशरीरेष्वल्पशरीराः, अल्पशरीरेषु महाशरीराः, प्रधानतमाः; एवमेकजातीयानां महाशरीरेभ्यः कृशशरीराःप्रधानतमाः ||१२९||
Below mentioned are the best meat among animals and birds –

  • Among the quadrupeds, the meat of the female is best.
  • Among birds, the meat of the males is the best. 
  • Among animals with big bodies, the meat of the small animal is the best.
  • Among the animals with a small body, the meat of the big animal is best.
  • In the same way, the animal with the lean / thin body is best among the group of big bodied animals.

Mamsa guru laghavatva – Meats which are easy or difficult for digestion

स्थानादिकृतं मांसस्य गुरुलाघवमुपदेक्ष्यामः |
तद्यथा- रक्तादिषु शुक्रान्तेषु धातुषूत्तरोत्तरा गुरुतराः, तथा सक्थिस्कन्धक्रोडशिरः पादकरकटीपृष्ठचर्मकालेय कयकृदन्त्राणि ||१३०||

We will now explain the heaviness (difficulty in digestion) and lightness (easily digestible) of meat based on their place (in the body of the animal) as follows –

  • among the Dhatus (tissues) commencing with Rakta (blood) and ending with Sukra (semen), successive ones are more heavy (hard for digestion) in their order;
  • similarly, meat of the thighs, shoulders, chest, head, feet (hind legs), hands (front legs), waist, back, skin, Kaleyaka (kidney), liver and intestines are more heavy (hard for digestion) in successive order

शिरःस्कन्धं कटी पृष्ठं सक्थिनी चात्मपक्षयोः |
गुरु पूर्वं विजानीयाद्धातवस्तु यथोत्तरम् ||१३१||
सर्वस्य प्राणिनो देहे मध्यो गुरुरुदाहृतः |
पूर्वभागो गुरुः पुंसामधोभागस्तु योषिताम् ||१३२||
उरोग्रीवं विहङ्गानां विशेषेण गुरु स्मृतम् |
पक्षोत्क्षेपात्समो दृष्टो मध्यभागस्तु पक्षिणाम् ||१३३|

Head, shoulders, waist, back, thighs and wings- are to be understood as hard for digestion in their preceding order and the Dhatus (tissues) in their succeeding order.
In all animals, the middle part of their body is hard for digestion. The front portion in male animals and lower (hind) portion in the females are hard (for digestion).
Among birds, the chest and neck are especially hard for digestion, their middle parts are seen to be moderate (neither heavy nor light) because of the upward (and downward) movement of the wings.

अतीव रूक्षं मांसं तु विहङ्गानां फलाशिनाम् |
बृंहणं मांसमत्यर्थं खगानां पिशिताशिनाम् ||१३४||
मत्स्याशिनां पित्तकरं वातघ्नं धान्यचारिनाम् |१३५|
Meat of birds which consume fruits is very dry. Meat of birds’ which are carnivorous is very stoutening, that of fish-eating birds is going to increase Pitta, and that of birds living in arid lands mitigates Vata.

जलजानूपजा ग्राम्या क्रच्यादैकशफास्तथा ||१३५||
प्रसहा बिलवासाश्च ये च जङ्घालसञ्ज्ञिताः |
प्रतुदा विष्किराश्चैव लघवः स्युर्यथोत्तरम् |
अल्पाभिष्यन्दिनश्चैव यथापूर्वमतोऽन्यथा ||१३६||
 Meat of animals which belong to the group of Jalaja (aquatic), Anupa (marshy region), Gramya (Domestic), Kravyada (carnivorous) Guhasaya (hole dwellers), Ekasaph, Prasaha and Janghala (swift running deers) Pratuda (peaking birds) and Viskira (scatters) is easily digestible in their succeeding order and is increasing the moisture in the tissues slightly, in their preceding order.

प्रामाणाधिकास्तु स्वजातावल्पसारा गुरवश्च |
सर्वप्राणिनां सर्वशरीरेभ्यः प्रधानतमा भवन्ति यकृत्प्रदेशवर्तिनस्तानाददीत; प्रधानालाभे मध्यमवयस्कं सद्यस्कमक्लिष्टमुपादेयं मांसमिति ||१३७||
Meat of animals which have stout bodies among those of the same group is inferior in bestowing strength and is hard to digest. In all animals the muscles present near their liver region are greatly superior to that of other parts and so these should be selected.
 When the superior kind of meat is not available, then the meat of a middle-aged animal, killed just then and pleasant should be preferred for partaking.

भवति चात्र-
Another verse here: –

चरः शरीरावयवाः स्वभावो धातवः क्रिया |
लिङ्गं प्रमाणं संस्कारो मात्रा चास्मिन् परीक्ष्यते ||१३८||

 Habitat, part of the body, kind of tissues, activities, gender (sex) and size (of the animals and birds), method of processing while preparing the food and the quantity of consumption – all these should be carefully considered (for deciding the easy or difficult digestibility).

इति मांसवर्गः। – mamsavarga- group of meats
Read – Can Fruits Be Consumed With Meals? Ayurveda Explains

III. Phalavarga- groups of fruits

अथ फलवर्गःअत ऊर्ध्वं फलान्युपदेक्ष्यामः|
तद्यथा- दाडिमामलकबदरकोलकर्कन्धुसौवीरसिञ्चितिकाफलकपित्थमातुलुङ्गाम्राम्रातककरमर्दप्रियालनारङ्ग- जम्बीरलकुचभव्यपारावतवेत्रफलप्राचीनामलकतिन्तिडीकनीपकोशाम्राम्लीकाप्रभृतीनि ||१३९||
अम्लानि रसतः पाके गुरूण्युष्णानि वीर्यतः |
पित्तलान्यनिलघ्नानि कफोत्क्लेशकराणि च ||१४०||

Further, we will describe the group of fruits as follows

Amlarasa Phala – fruits of sour taste

Dadima, Amalaka, Badara, Kola, Karkandhu, Sauvira, Sincitikaphala, Kapittha, Matulunga, Amra, Amrataka, Karamarda, Priyala, Naranga, Jambira, Lakuca, Bhavya, Paravata, Vetraphala, Pracinamalaka, Tintidika, Nipa, Kosamra, Amlika and others.
These are sour both in taste and after digestion, heavy (not easily digestible), hot in potency, increases pitta, mitigates vata and excites (enhances the outward flow of) Kapha.

Dadima

कषायानुरसं तेषां दाडिमं नातिपित्तलम् |
दीपनीयं रुचिकरं हृद्यं वर्चोविबन्धनम् ||१४१||
द्विविधं तत्तु विज्ञेयं मधुरं चाम्लमेव च |
त्रिदोषघ्नं तु मधुरमम्लं वातकफापहम् ||१४२||
Dadima, among these, is astringent in secondary taste, does not cause increase of pitta greatly, kindles digestion, help enhance taste, good for heart (or mind) and binds the faeces, produces constipation. It is of two kinds, sweet and sour. The sweet kind mitigates all the three Doshas and the sour kind mitigates Vata and kapha.
Read – Pomegranate Benefits, Home Remedies, Side Effects

Amalaki Phalam

अम्लं समधुरं तिक्तं कषायं कटुकं सरम् |
चक्षुष्यं सर्वदोषघ्नं वृष्यमामलकीफलम् ||१४३||
हन्ति वातं तदम्लत्वात् पित्तं माधुर्यशैत्यतः |
कफं रूक्षकषायत्वात् फलेभ्योऽभ्यधिकं च तत् ||१४४||
Amalaki phala is sour, slightly sweet, bitter, astringent and pungent, laxative, good for vision, mitigates all the Doshas, is aphrodisiac; it mitigates Vata by its sourness, pitta by its sweetness and cold potency and Kapha by its dryness and astringency- hence best among fruit.

Karkandhu, Kola, Badara

कर्कन्धुकोलबदरमामं पित्तकफावहम् |
पक्वं पित्तानिलहरं स्निग्धं समधुरं सरम् ||१४५||
Karkandhu, Kola and Badara in their unripe state, increase pitta and kapha and in the ripe state, mitigate Pitta and Vata; are unctuous, slightly sweet and laxative.

Sauvira Phala and Badara

पुरातनं तृट्शमनं श्रमघ्नं दीपनं लघु |
सौवीरं बदरं स्निग्धं मधुरं वातपित्तजित् ||१४६||
Sauvira Phala, which is old, mitigates thirst, fatigue, kindles digestion and light (easily digestible).
Badara is unctuous, sweet and mitigates Vata and Pitta.
Read – Ber Fruit: Indian Jujube Uses, Dose, Side Effect, Research

Sicitika Phala

कषायं स्वादु सङ्ग्राहि शीतं सिञ्चितिकाफलम् |
Sinicitika Phala, is astringent, sweet, constipated and cold in potency.

Kapittha

आमं कपित्थमस्वर्यं कफघ्नं ग्राहि वातलम् ||१४७||
कफानिलहरं पक्वं मधुराम्लरसं गुरु |
श्वासकासारुचिहरं तृष्णाघ्नं कण्ठशोधनम् ||१४८||
Kapittha which is unripe is not good for voice, mitigates Kapha, constipating, increases Vata.
The ripe fruit mitigates Kapha and vata, is sweet and sour in taste and not easily digestible, cures dyspnoea, cough, anorexia, thirst and cleanses the throat.

Matulunga

लघ्वम्लं दीपनं हृद्यं मातुलुङ्गमुदाहृतम् |
त्वक् तिक्ता दुर्जरा तस्य वातक्रिमिकफापहा ||१४९||
स्वादु शीतं गुरु स्निग्धं मांसं मारुतपित्तजित् |
मेध्यं शूलानिलच्छर्दिकफारोचकनाशनम् ||१५०||
दीपनं लघु सङ्ग्राहि गुल्मार्शोघ्नं तु केसरम् |
शूलाजीर्णविबन्धेषु मन्देऽग्नौ कफमारुते ||१५१||
अरुचौ च विशेषेण रसस्तस्योपदिश्यते |१५२|
Matulunga is light (easily digestible), sour, kindles digestion, good for heart (or mind).

  • Its skin (rind) is bitter, difficult for digestion, mitigates vata, worms and Kapha.
  • Its Mamsa (fleshy part) is sweet, cold, hard for digestion, unctuous, mitigates vata and Pitta, improves intelligence, relieves colic, vomiting due to Vata, and anorexia of Kapha origin.
  • Its Kesara (filaments inside the fruit) kindles digestion, easy for digestion, constipating and cures abdominal tumor and piles.
  • In colic, indigestion, constipation, poor digestive power, aggravation of kapha and vata and anorexia, its juice is especially beneficial.

Amra

पित्तानिलकरं बालं पित्तलं बद्धकेसरम् ||१५२||
हृद्यं वर्णकरं रुच्यं रक्तमांसबलप्रदम् |
कषायानुरसं स्वादु वातघ्नं बृंहणं गुरु ||१५३||
पित्ताविरोधि सम्पक्वमाम्रं शुक्रविवर्धनम् |

Amra which is young (unripe) aggravates pitta and vata, that having thread like filaments aggravates pitta.
Ripe fruit is good for the heart (or mind), bestows color (complexion) good for taste, bestows strength to blood and muscles, astringent in secondary taste, sweet in primary taste, mitigates vata, stoutening, heavy for digestion, does not harm pitta (does not aggravate pitta and mitigates it slightly) and increases semen.
Read – Uses of Mango Fruit, Bark, Leaves, Seeds, Recipes, Remedies, Research

Amrataka Phala

बृंहणं मधुरं बल्यं गुरु विष्टभ्य जीर्यति ||१५४||
आम्रातकफलं वृष्यं सस्नेहं श्लेष्मवर्धनम् |१५५|
Amratakaphala is stoutening, sweet, bestows strength, hard for digestion, undergoes digestion after staying inside for a long time, is aphrodisiac, slightly unctuous and aggravates Kapha.

Lakuca

त्रिदोषविष्टम्भकरं लकुचं शुक्रनाशनम् ||१५५||
Lakuca aggravates all three Doshas, causes stasis of food without digestion and destroys semen.

Karamardaka
अम्लं तृषापहं रुच्यं पित्तकृत् करमर्दकम् |
Karamardaka is sour, relieves thirst, helps enhance taste and aggravates Pitta.

Priyala, Bhavya

वातपित्तहरं वृष्यं प्रियालं गुरु शीतलम् ||१५६||
हृद्यं स्वादु कषायाम्लं भव्यमास्यविशोधनम् |
पित्तश्लेष्महरं ग्राहि गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् ||१५७||

Priyala mitigates vata and Pitta, is aphrodisiac, hard for digestion, cold in potency.
Bhavya is good for the heart (or mind), sweet, astringent and sour; cleanses the mouth, mitigates Pitta and kapha, constipates, is hard for digestion, stays along inside and is cold in potency.

Paravata, Nipa

पारावतं समधुरं रुच्यमत्यग्निवातनुत् |
गरदोषहरं नीपं प्राचीनामलकं तथा ||१५८||
Paravata fruit is slightly sweet, helps taste, mitigates overactive digestive power, and mitigates Vata.
Nipa fruit removes the effects of artificial poison; so also, Pracinamalaka.

Tintidika

वातापहं तिन्तिडीकमामं पित्तबलासकृत् |
ग्राह्युष्णं दीपनं रुच्यं सम्पक्वं कफवातनुत् ||१५९||
Tintidika which is unripe, mitigates vata, increases Pitta and kapha. That which is well ripe is constipating, hot in potency, kindles digestion, helps taste and mitigates Kapha and vata.

Kosamra Phala, Amlika

तस्मादल्पान्तरगुणं कोशाम्रफलमुच्यते |
अम्लीकायाः फलं पक्वं तद्वद्भेदि तु केवलम् ||१६०||

Kosamra Phala is slightly inferior in qualities to Tintidika. Amlika Phala which is ripe is also similar, and causes purgation.

Nagaraphala

अम्लं समधुरं हृद्यं विशदं भक्तरोचनम् |
वातघ्नं दुर्जरं प्रोक्तं नारङ्गस्य फलं गुरु ||१६१||
Narangaphala is sour, slightly sweet, good for the heart (or mind) non-slimy, makes the food tasty, mitigates vata, and is heavy (difficult for digestion).

Jambira phala, Airavata Phala, Dantasatha phala

तृष्णाशूलकफोत्क्लेशच्छर्दिश्वासनिवारणम् |
वातश्लेष्मविबन्धघ्नं जम्बीरं गुरु पित्तकृत् |
ऐरावतं दन्तशठमम्लं शोणितपित्तकृत् ||१६२||
Jambira phala cures thirst, colic, excess of salivation, vomiting, dyspnoea, mitigates vata, kapha and constipation; hard for digestion and aggravates Pitta.

Airavata Phala and Dantasatha phala are sour, aggravate blood and pitta.

Kasaya- Madhura rasa phala

Fruits of astringent and sweet taste

क्षीरवृक्षफलजाम्बवराजादनतोदनशीतफलतिन्दुकबकुलधन्वनाश्मन्तकाश्वकर्णफल्गु- परूषकगाङ्गेरुकीपुष्करवर्तिबिल्वबिम्बीप्रभृतीनि ||१६३||
Ksiravrksa Phala (fruits of trees having milky sap), Jambu, Rajadana, Todana, Sitaphala, Tinduka, Bakula, Dhanvana, Asmantska, Asvakarna, Phalgu, Parusaka, Gangeruki, Puskaravarti, Bilva, Bimbi and such others.

फलान्येतानि शीतानि कफपित्तहराणि च |
सङ्ग्राहकाणि रूक्षाणि कषायमधुराणि च ||१६४||

 These fruits are cold in potency, mitigate Kapha and Pitta, constipating, dry and have an astringent-sweet taste.

Ksiravrksa phala

क्षीरवृक्षफलं तेषां गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् |
कषायं मधुरं साम्लं नातिमारुतकोपनम् ||१६५||
Ksiravrksa phala, among these, are heavy (for digestion), stay long in the stomach without digestion, cold in potency; astringent – sweet in taste, slightly sour and not aggravating vata greatly (aggravating mildly).

Jambu phala, Rajadana

अत्यर्थं वातलं ग्राहि जाम्बवं कफपित्तजित् |
स्निग्धं स्वादु कषायं च राजादनफलं गुरु ||१६६||
Jambu Phala aggravates Vata greatly, causes constipation, and mitigates Kapha and pitta.
Rajadana is unctuous, sweet and astringent in taste and difficult for digestion.

Todana

कषायं मधुरं रूक्षं तोदनं कफवातजित् |
अम्लोष्णं लघु सङ्ग्राहि स्निग्धं पित्ताग्निवर्धनम् ||१६७||
Todana is astringent, sweet in taste, dry, mitigates kapha and vata, sour in taste, hot in potency, easily digestible, constipating, unctuous, increases pitta and digestive power.

Tinduka

आमं कषायं सङ्ग्राहि तिन्दुकं वातकोपनम् |
विपाके गुरु सम्पक्वं मधुरं कफपित्तजित् ||१६८||

Tinduka when unripe, is astringent, constipating, aggravates vata, guru, vipaka (sweet in taste after digestion); when ripe it is sweet and mitigates kapha and Pitta.

Bakula

मधुरं च कषायं च स्निग्धं सङ्ग्राहि बाकुलम् |
स्थिरीकरं च दन्तानां विशदं फलमुच्यते ||१६९||
Bakula is sweet and astringent, unctuous, constipating, makes the teeth firm and is non-slimy.

Dhanvana, Gangeruki, Asmantaka

सकषायं हिमं स्वादु धान्वनं कफवातजित् |
तद्वद्गाङ्गेरुकं विद्यादश्मन्तकफलानि च ||१७०||
Dhanvana is slightly astringent, cold in potency, sweet, and mitigates Kapha and vata.
Gangeruki and Asmantaka fruits are similar to Dhanvana in properties.

Phalgu Phala

विष्टम्भि मधुरं स्निग्धं फल्गुजं तर्पणं गुरु |
Phalgu Phala is constipating, sweet, unctuous, nourishing and not easily digestible.

Parusaka

अत्यम्लमीषन्मधुरं कषायानुरसं लघु ||१७१||
वातघ्नं पित्तजनमामं विद्यात् परुषकम् |
तदेव पक्वं मधुरं वातपित्तनिबर्हणम् ||१७२||
Purusaka when unripe is very sour, slightly sweet, has astringent as a secondary taste, easily digestible, mitigates vata, mitigates Pitta more. The same when ripe is sweet, mitigates vata and Pitta.

Pauskara

विपाके मधुरं शीतं रक्तपित्तप्रसादनम् |
पौष्करं स्वादु विष्टम्भि बल्यं कफकरं फलम् ||१७३||
Pauskara is sweet after digestion, cold, good for blood and pitta, sweet, constipating, strengthening and increases kapha and heavy (for digestion).

Bilva

कफानिलहरं तीक्ष्णं स्निग्धं सङ्ग्राहि दीपनम् |
कटुतिक्तकषायोष्णं बालं बिल्वमुदाहृतम् ||१७४||
विद्यात्तदेव सम्पक्वं मधुरानुरसं गुरु |
विदाहि विष्टम्भकरं दोषकृत् पूतिमारुतम् ||१७५||

Bala Bilva – Bilva, when young (unripe), mitigates kapha and Vata, is penetrating, unctuous, constipating, kindles digestion, is pungent, bitter and astringent and hot in potency.
Pakva Bilva – The same when ripe has sweet as a secondary taste and is heavy (difficult for digestion), causes heartburn, stays long without digestion, aggravates the Doshas and causes foul smelling flatus.
Read – Bael Root, Fruit, Leaves, Stem Uses, Research, Remedies, Side Effects

Bimbi and Asvakarna

बिम्बीफलं साश्वकर्णं स्तन्यकृत् कफपित्तजित् |
तृड्दाहज्वरपित्तासृक्कासश्वासक्षयापहम् ||१७६||
Bimbi and Asvakarna produce more breastmilk, mitigate Kapha and pitta, and relieve thirst, burning sensation, fever, bleeding disease, cough, dyspnoea, and consumption.

Madhura rasa phala – Fruit of sweet taste

Tala and others
तालनालिकेरपनसमोचप्रभृतीनि ||१७७||
स्वादुपाकरसान्याहुर्वातपित्तहराणि च |
बलप्रदानि स्निग्धानि बृंहणानि हिमानि च ||१७८||

a) Tala, Nalikera, Panasa, Moca and such others.

 These fruits are sweet in taste and even after digestion, mitigate Vata and Pitta, bestow strength, are unctuous, stoutens the body and cold in potency.

Tala phala

फलं स्वादुरसं तेषां तालजं गुरु पित्तजित् |
तद्बीजं स्वादुपाकं तु मूत्रलं वातपित्तजित् ||१७९||
Tala phala is sweet in taste, difficult for digestion, mitigates Pitta, its seed is sweet after digestion, diuretic and mitigates Vata and Pitta.
Read – Toddy Palm (Asian Palmyra Palm) Uses, Research, Medicines, Side Effects

Nalikeram

नालिकेरं गुरु स्निग्धं पित्तघ्नं स्वादु शीतलम् |
बलमांसप्रदं हृद्यं बृंहणं बस्तिशोधनम् ||१८०||
Nalikera Phala is difficult for digestion, unctuous, mitigates Pitta, sweet in taste, cold in potency, bestows strength and muscles, good for the heart (or mind), stoutens the body and cleanses the urinary bladder.
Read – Coconut, Coconut Water, Flower Benefits, Side Effects, Research, Remedies

Panasam, Moca phala

पनसं सकषायं तु स्निग्धं स्वादुरसं गुरु |
मौचं स्वादुरसं प्रोक्तं कषायं नातिशीतलम् |
रक्तपित्तहरं वृष्यं रुच्यं श्लेष्मकरं गुरु ||१८१||

Panasa Phala is slightly astringent, unctuous, sweet is taste and hard for digestion.
Mocaphala is sweet and astringent in taste, not very cold in potency, cures bleeding disease, is aphrodisiac, good for taste, increases Kapha and is difficult for digestion.
Read – Jackfruit Uses, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

द्राक्षाकाश्मर्यमधूकपुष्पखर्जूरप्रभृतीनि ||१८२||
रक्तपित्तहराण्याहुर्गुरूणि मधुराणि च |
तेषां द्राक्षा सरा स्वर्या मधुरा स्निग्धशीतला ||१८३||
रक्तपित्तज्वरश्वासतृष्णादाहक्षयापहा |

b) Draksa, Kasmarya, Madhuka Puspa, Kharjura and such others.

These fruits cure bleeding disease, hard for digestion, and sweet in taste.
Draksa Phala among these is laxative, good for voice, sweet in taste, unctuous, cold in potency, cures bleeding disease, fever, dyspnoea, thirst, burning sensation and consumption.

Kasmarya, Kharjura Phala

हृद्यं मूत्रविबन्धघ्नं पित्तासृग्वातनाशनम् ||१८४||
केश्यं रसायनं मेध्यं काश्मर्यं फलमुच्यते |
क्षतक्षयापहं हृद्यं शीतलं तर्पणं गुरु ||१८५||
रसे पाके च मधुरं खार्जूरं रक्तपित्तनुत् |

Kasmarya phala is good for the heart, removes the obstruction of urine and faeces, and mitigates pitta, Rakta and vata, good for hairs, rejuvenator and increases intelligence.
Kharjura phala cures injuries of the lungs, consumption, is good for heart (or mind) cold, nourishing, hard for digestion, sweet in taste and after digestion, sweet in taste and after digestion and cures bleeding disease.

Madhuka Kusuma

बृंहणीयमहृद्यं च मधूककुसुमं गुरु |
वातपित्तोपशमनं फलं तस्योपदिश्यते ||१८६||
Madhuka Kusuma (flower of Madhuka tree) is soutening, not good for the heart, and heavy (for digestion). Its fruit mitigates Vata and Pitta.

c. Vatama and others

वातामाक्षोडाभिषुकनिचुलपिचुनिकोचकोरुमाणप्रभृतीनि ||१८७||
c) Vatama, Aksoda, Abhisuka, Nicula, Picu, Nikoccaka, Urumana and suc others.

पित्तश्लेष्महराण्याहुः स्निग्धोष्णानि गुरूणि च |
बृंहणान्यनिलघ्नानि बल्यानि मधुराणि च ||१८८||
These fruits are said to mitigate Pitta and kappa, unctuous, hot in potency, hard for digestion, stoutens the body, mitigates Vata, and bestows strength and sweetness in taste.

Lavali Phala

कषायं कफपित्तघ्नं किञ्चित्तिक्तं रुचिप्रदम् |
हृद्यं सुगन्धि विशदं लवलीफलमुच्यते ||१८९||
Lavali Phala is astringent in taste, mitigates Kapha and Pitta, slightly bitter, bestows taste, good for heart, has pleasant smell and non-slimy.
Read – Star Gooseberry Uses, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

Vasira etc

वसिरं शीतपाक्यं च सारुष्करनिबन्धनम् |
विष्टम्भि दुर्जरं रूक्षं शीतलं वातकोपनम् ||१९०||
विपाके मधुरं चापि रक्तपित्तप्रसादनन् |१|
ऐरावतं दन्तशठमम्लं शोणितपित्तकृत् ||१९१||

d) Vasira, Sitapaki, and Aruskaras Nibandhana (attachment of Bhallataka fruits) stay long in the stomach without digestion, difficult for digestion, dry, cold in potency, aggravates Vata, sweet after digestion and mitigates Rakta and Pitta.

Airavata and Dantasatha are sour, aggravate blood and pitta (or cause bleeding diseases).

Tanka Phala / Ingudi Phalam

शीतं कषायं मधुरं टङ्कं मारुतकृद्गुरु |
स्निग्धोष्णं तिक्तमधुरं वातश्लेष्मघ्नमैङ्गुदम् ||१९२||

Tanka Phala is cold in potency, astringent- sweet in taste, aggravates Vata and is difficult to digest.
Ingudi phala is unctuous, hot in potency, bitter – sweet in taste, and mitigates Vata and Kapha.

Sami Phala, Slesmataka Phala

शमीफलं गुरु स्वादु रूक्षोष्णं केशनाशनम् |
गुरु श्लेष्मातकफलं कफकृन्मधुरं हिमम् ||१९३||

Sami Phala is hard for digestion, sweet, dry, hot in potency, and destroys the hairs.
Slesmataka Phala is hard for digestion, increases kapha, sweet in taste and cold in potency.

Karira etc

करीराक्षिकपीलूनि तृणशून्यफलानि च |
स्वादुतिक्तकटूष्णानि कफवातहराणि च ||१९४||
e) Karira, Aksika, Pilu, Transunya- fruits of these are sweet-bitter and pungent in taste, hot in potency and mitigates kapha and Vata.

तिक्तं पिन्त्तकरं तेषां सरं कटुविपाकि च |
तीक्ष्णोष्णं कटुकं पीलु सस्नेहं कफवातजित् ||१९५||

Among these, Pilu phala is bitter, increases pitta, laxative, pungent in taste after digestion, penetrating, hot in potency, slightly unctuous and mitigates Kapha and vata.

Kasaya rasa phala- fruits of astringent taste

Aruskara and Tuvaraka

आरुष्करं तौवरकं कषायं कटुपाकि च |
उष्णं कृमिज्वरानाहमेहोदावर्तनाशनम् |
कुष्ठगुल्मोदरार्शोघ्नं कटुपाकि तथैव च ||१९६||
Aruskara and Tuvaraka – these fruis are astringent in taste, pungent after digestion, hot in potency, cures diseases caused by worms, fever, flatulence, diabetes and reverse peristalisis, leprosy (and some other skin diseases), abdominal tumor, enlargement of the abdomen and piles and are pungent after digestion.

Karanja, Kimsuka, Arista, Ankola Phala

करञ्जकिंशुकारिष्टफलं जन्तुप्रमेहनुत् |
अङ्कोलस्य फलं विस्रं गुरु श्लेष्महरं हिमम् ||१९७||

Karanja, Kimsuka and Arista – these cure worms and diabetes.
Ankola Phala has a foul smell, hard for digestion, mitigates kapha and is cold in potency.

Vidanga Phala

रूक्षोष्णं कटुकं पाके लघु वातकफापहम् |
तिक्तमीषद्विषहितं विडङ्गं कृमिनाशनम् ||१९८||
Vidanga phala is dry, hot in potency, pungent after digestion, easily digestible, mitigates Vata and kapha, slightly bitter in taste, beneficial in posion and destroys worms.

Abhaya Phala

व्रण्यमुष्णं सरं मेध्यं दोषघ्नं शोफकुष्ठनुत् |
कषायं दीपनं चाम्लं चक्षुष्यं चाभयाफलम् ||१९९||
Abhaya phala is good for ulcers, hot in potency, laxative, improves intelligence, mitigates all the doshas, cures dropsy, leprosy (and other skin diseases), astringent in taste, kindles digestion, slightly sour, and good for eyes (vision).

Aksa – Vibhitaka phala

भेदनं लघु रूक्षोष्णं वैस्वर्यक्रिमिनाशनम् |
चक्षुष्यं स्वादुपाक्याक्षं कषायं कफपित्तजित् ||२००||

 Aksa (vibhitaka) phala is purgative, easily digestible, dry, hot in potency, cures disorders of voice and destroys worms, good for vision, sweet after digestion, astringent in taste and mitigates Kapha and Pitta.

Puga Phala

कफपित्तहरं रूक्षं वक्त्रक्लेदमलापहम् |
कषायमीषन्मधुरं किञ्चित् पूगफलं सरम् ||२०१||
Puga Phala mitigates kapha and Pitta, is dry, removes moistness and dirt of the month, and is astringent and slightly sweet and mild laxative.
Read – Betel Nut (Areca catechu) Uses, Research, Medicines, Side Effects

Katu Rasa phala- fruits Of Pungent taste

Jati kosa etc

जातीकोशोऽथ कर्पूरं जातीकटुकयोः फलम् |
कक्को(ङ्को)लकं लवङ्गं च तिक्तं कटु कफापहम् ||२०२||
लघु तृष्णापहं वक्त्रक्लेददौर्गन्ध्यनाशनम् |२०३|
Jati Kosa, Karpura, Jatiphala, katukaphala, Kakkola, and Lavanga are bitter and pungent mitigates kapha, easily digestible, relieves thirst, removes moistness and bad smell of the mouth.

Karpura

सतिक्तः सुरभिः शीतः कर्पूरो लघु लेखनः ||२०३||
तृष्णायां मुखशोषे च वैरस्ये चापि पूजितः |२०४|
Karpura is bitter, fragment, cold in potency, easy for digestion, scarficant, highly praised as beneficial in thirst, dryness and bad taste in the mouth.

Lata Kasturika

लताकस्तूरिका तद्वच्छीता बस्तिविशोधनी ||२०४||
Lata Kasturika is similar to Karpura in properties, is cold in potency, and cleanses the urinary bladder.

Phalamajja – Kernel inside seeds

Priyala Majja / Vibhitaka Majja

प्रियालमज्जा मधुरो वृष्यः पित्तानिलापहः |
बैभीतको मदकरः कफमारुतनाशनः ||२०५||

Priyala Majja (kernel of priyala fruit) is sweet, aphrodisiac, mitigates Pitta and Vata.
Vibhitaka majja is intoxiating, mitigates kapha and vata.

Kola Majja / Amalaka Majja

कषायमधुरो मज्जा कोलानां पित्तनाशनः |
तृष्णाच्छर्द्यनिलघ्नश्च तद्वदामलकस्य च ||२०६||
Kola majja is astringent, sweet in taste and mitigates Pitta, relieves thirst, vomiting and diseases of Vata origin; Amalaka Majja is similar in properties.

Bijapura, Samyaka, Kosamra Majja

बीजपूरकशम्याकमज्जा कोशाम्रसम्भवः |
स्वादुपाकोऽग्निबलदः स्निग्धः पित्तानिलापहः ||२०७||
Majja of bijapura, Samyaka and Kosamra are sweet in taste and also after digestion, bestow strength to digestive fire, unctuous, mitigate Pitta and vata.

Potency of fruit and kernel

यस्य यस्य फलस्येह वीर्यं भवति यादृशम् |
तस्य तस्यैव वीर्येण मज्जानमपि निर्दिशेत् ||२०८||
Whatever the potency of the fruit is the same is to be understood as the potency of the Kernel of that fruit.

फलेषु परिपक्वं यद्गुणवत्तदुदाहृतम् |
बिल्वादन्यत्र विज्ञेयमामं तद्धि गुणोत्तरम् |
ग्राह्युष्णं दीपनं तद्धि कषायकटुतिक्तकम् ||२०९||
The properties of ripe fruits only were described so far except that of bilva, in which it is the unripe fruit only that is superior in properties such as constipating, hot potency, kindles digestion and astringent, pungent and bitter tastes.

व्याधितं कृमिजुष्टं च पाकातीतमकालजम् |
वर्जनीयं फलं सर्वमपर्यागतमेव च ||२१०||
All fruits which are diseased (infected) eaten by worms, over ripe, unseasonal or unripe should be avoided.

इति फलवर्गः
Thus ends Phalavarga – group of fruits

अथ शाकवर्गः।

IV. Saka Varga – group of fruits

Puspa phala etc
शाकान्यत ऊर्ध्वं वक्ष्यामः |

तत्र पुष्पफलालाबुकालिन्दकप्रभृतीनि ||२११||
पित्तघ्नान्यनिलं कुर्युस्तथा मन्दकफानि च |

सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि स्वादुपाकरसानि च ||२१२||

We will now describe the group of vegetables: –
a) Pushpa phala (kusmanda), Alabu (gourds), Kalindaka (melons) and such others mitigates pitta, aggravates Vata and increase kapha slightly, help elimination of urine and faeces, sweet and also after digestion.

Kusmanda

पित्तघ्नं तेषु कूष्माण्डं बालं मध्यं कफावहम् |
शुक्लं लघूष्णं सक्षारं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ||२१३||
Kusumanda, among these, mitigates Pitta when young; when of middle age increases Kapha and when white in color (well ripe) it is easy for digestion; hot in potency, slightly alkaline, kindles digestion, and cleanses the urinary bladder.

Kalinda

सर्वदोषहरं हृद्यं पथ्यं चेतोविकारिणाम् |
दृष्टिशुक्रक्षयकरं कालिन्दं कफवातकृत् ||२१४||
Kalinda mitigates all the Doshas, good for the heart (mind), best suited to persons suffering from mental disorders, causes decrease of vision and semen and aggravates Kapha and vata.

Alabu, Tikta Alabu

अलाबुर्भिन्नविट्का तु रूक्षा गुर्व्यतिशीतला |
तिक्तालाबुरहृद्या तु वामिनी वातपित्तजित् ||२१५||

Alabu causes watery stool, is dry, hard for digestion, very cold in potency.
Tikta Alabu is not good for the heart (mind), produces vomiting and mitigates Vata and Pitta.
Read – Bottle Gourd Uses, Home Remedies, Side Effects, Research

Trapusa etc
त्रपुसैर्वारुकर्कारुकशीर्णवृन्तप्रभृतीनि ||२१६||
स्वादुतिक्तरसान्याहुः कफवातकराणि च |

सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि रक्तपित्तहराणि च ||२१७||

b) Trapusa, Ervaru, Karkaruka, Sirnavrnta and such others are sweet and bitter in taste, cause increase of kapha and vata, help elimination of urine and faeces and mitigates aggravation of blood and pitta (or cure bleeding diseases).

Trapusa

बालं सनीलं त्रपुसं तेषां पित्तहरं स्मृतम् |
तत्पाण्डु कफकृज्जीर्णमम्लं वातकफापहम् ||२१८||
Tarpusa which is young is blue in color, mitigates Pitta, that which is yellowish white (middle age) increases Kapha and that which is old (ripe) is sour in taste and mitigates vata and Kapha.
Read – Cucumber: Cucumis Sativus Benefits, Research, Remedies, Side Effects

Ervaruka and Karkaru

एर्वारुकं सकर्कारु सम्पक्वं कफवातकृत् |
सक्षारं मधुरं रुच्यं दीपनं नातिपित्तलम् ||२१९||
Ervaruka and karkaru, when well ripe, increase kapha and Vata, slightly alkaline and sweet in taste, kindle digestion and not increase pitta greatly.

Sirnavrnta

सक्षारं मधुरं चैव शीर्णवृन्तं कफापहम् |भेदनं दीपनं हृद्यमानाहाष्ठीलनुल्लघु ||२२०||
Sirnavrnta (variety of trapusa) is slightly alkaline and sweet in taste, mitigates kapha, is a purgative, kindles digestion, good for heart, easily digestible, and cures flatulence and enlargement of the prostate.

Katu rasa Saka – Vegetables of pungent taste

पिप्पलीमरिचशृङ्गवेरार्द्रकहिङ्गुजीरककुस्तुम्बुरुजम्बीरसुमुखसुरसार्जकभूस्तृणसुगन्धक- कासमर्दककालमालकुठेरकक्षवकखरपुष्पशिग्रुमधुशिग्रुफणिज्झकसर्षपराजिकाकुलाहलावगुत्थगण्डीरतिलपर्णिका- वर्षाभूचित्रकमूलकलशुनकलायपलाण्डुप्रभृतीनि ||२२१||
Pippali, marica, Srngavera, Ardraka, Hingu, jiraka, Kustumburu, Jambira, Sumukha, Surasa, Arjaka, bhustrana, Sugandhaka, Kasamardaka, Kalamalaka, Kutheraka, Kutheraka, Ksavaka, Kharapuspa, Sigru, Madhusigru, Phanijjaka, Sarsapa, Rajika, Kulahala, Avaguttha, Gandira, Tilaparnika, Varsabhu, Citraka, Mulaka, Lasuna, Kalaya, Palandu and such others.

कटून्युष्णानि रुच्यानि वातश्लेष्महराणि च |
कृतान्नेषूपयुज्यन्ते संस्कारार्थमनेकधा ||२२२||
These are pungent in taste, hot in potency, help taste, and mitigate Vata and Kapha, used in preparing cooked foods and processing in many ways.
Read – Pungent Taste, Spices: Qualities, Health Benefits, Side Effects

Pippali

तेषां गुर्वी स्वादुशीता पिप्पल्यार्द्रा कफावहा |
शुष्का कफानिलघ्नी सा वृष्या पित्ताविरोधिनी ||२२३||
Among these, pippali which is the most (green) is heavy (hard for digestion), sweet, cold in potency, and increases Kapha. That which is dry mitigates Kapha and Vata, is aphrodisiac and does not affect Pitta.

Marica

स्वादुपाक्यार्द्रमरिचं गुरु श्लेष्मप्रसेकि च |
कटूष्णं लघु तच्छुष्कमवृष्यं कफवातजित् ||२२४||
Marica which is moist (green) is sweet after digestion, nor easily digestible, causes more flow of kapha (in the mouth etc) i.e., more salivation. That which is dry is pungent, hot in potency, light (easily digestible), non-aphrodisiac and mitigates kapha and vata.

Sita Marica

नात्युष्णं नातिशीतं च वीर्यतो मरिचं सितम् |
गुणवन्मरिचेभ्यश्च चक्षुष्यं च विशेषतः ||२२५||
Sita marica (seeds of Sobhanjana) is neither very hot nor very cold (moderate) in potency, is similar to (krsna marica) in properties and is especially good for vision.

Nagara / Ardraka

नागरं कफवातघ्नं विपाके मधुरं कटु |
वृष्योष्णं रोचनं हृद्यं सस्नेहं लघु दीपनम् ||२२६||
कफानिलहरं स्वर्यं विबन्धानाहशूलनुत् |
कटूष्णं रोचनं हृद्यं वृष्यं चैवार्द्रकं स्मृतम् ||२२७||
Nagara (dry sunthi) mitigates Kapha and Vata, is pungent in taste and sweet after digestion, aphrodisiac, hot in potency, helps taste, good for heart, slightly unctuous, easy for digestion, and kindles digestion.
Ardarka (moist / green sunthi) mitigates Kapha and Vata, good for voice relieves constipation, flatulence and colic, pungent, hot in potency, helps taste, good for heart, and aphrodisiac.
Read – Ginger Benefits, Research, Home Remedies, Side Effects

Hingu

लघूष्णं पाचनं हिङ्गु दीपनं कफवातजित् |
कटु स्निग्धं सरं तीक्ष्णं शूलाजीर्णविबन्धनुत् ||२२८||
Hingu is easily digestable, hot in potency, digestion, kindles digestion, mitigates kapha and Vata, pungent in taste, unctuous, laxative, penetrating, relieves colic, indigestion and constipation.

Jiraka

तीक्ष्णोष्णं कटुकं पाके रुच्यं पित्ताग्निवर्धनम् |
कटु श्लेष्मानिलहरं गन्धाढ्यं जीरकद्वयम् ||२२९||
कारवी करवी तद्वद्विज्ञेया सोपकुञ्चिका |२३०|
Two kinds of Jirakka are penetrating, hot in potency, pungent after digestion, help taste, increase Pitta and digestive power, pungent in taste, mitigate kapha and vata and have predominant odour.
Karavi and Karavi (Yavani or Ajamoda) and Upakuncika are similar in properties with Jiraka.
Read – Aranya Jiraka Centratherum anthelminticum: Uses, Research, Remedies

Ardra Suska / Kustumbari

भक्ष्यव्यञ्जनभोज्येषु विविधेष्ववचारिता ||२३०||
आर्द्रा कुस्तुम्बरी कुर्यात् स्वादुसौगन्ध्यहृद्यताम् |
सा शुष्का मधुरा पाके स्निग्धा तृड्दाहनाशनी ||२३१||
दोषघ्नी कटुका किञ्चित् तिक्ता स्रोतोविशोधनी |२३२|
Ardra Kustumbari (moist / green coriander leaves) used in many ways in different kinds of food menu, bestows sweetness and pleasant smell to them. When dry, it is sweet after digestion, unctuous, relieves thirst and burning sensation, mitigates all the Doshas, pungent and slightly bitter in taste and cleanses the channels (tissues pores etc).
Read – Coriander Seed And Leaves Health Benefits – Complete Ayurveda Details

Jambira

जम्बीरः पाचनस्तीक्ष्णः कृमिवातकफापहः ||२३२||
सुराभिर्दीपनो रुच्यो मुखवैशद्यकारकः |

Jambira is digestive, penetrating, mitigates worms, Vata and Kapha, has pleasant smell, kindles digestion, bestows taste and cleanses the mouth.

Surasa

कफानिलविषश्वासकासदौर्गन्ध्यनाशनः ||२३३||
पित्तकृत् पार्श्वशूलघ्नः सुरसः समुदाहृतः |
तद्वत्तु सुमुखो ज्ञेयो विशेषाद्गरनाशनः ||२३४||
Surasa (sveta) mitigates Kapha, Vata, poison, dyspnoea, cough, and bad smell, aggravates pitta and cures pain of the flanks. Sumukha is similar to its properties and cures homicidal poisoning especially.
Read – Tulsi – Ocimum sanctum Benefits, Research, Side Effects

Surasa (Krsna), Arjaka, Bhutrna

कफघ्ना लघवो रूक्षास्तीक्ष्णोष्णाः पित्तवर्धनाः |
कटुपाकरसाश्चैव सुरसार्जकभूस्तृणाः ||२३५||

Surasa (Krsna) Arjaka and Bhutrna- these mitigate Kapha, easily digestible, dry, penetrating, hot in in potency, aggravate pitta, pungent in taste and even after digestion.

Kasamardaka

मधुरः कफवातघ्नः पाचनः कण्ठशोधनः |
विशेषतः पित्तहरः सतिक्तः कासमर्दकः ||२३६||

Kasamardaka is sweet, mitigates Kapha and Vata, is digestive, cleanses the throat, mitigates Pitta especially and is slightly bitter.

Sigru, Madhusigru

कटुः सक्षारमधुरः शिग्रुस्तिक्तोऽथ पिच्छिलः |
मधुशिग्रुः सरस्तिक्तः शोफघ्नो दीपनः कटुः ||२३७||

Sigru is pungent, slightly alkaline and sweet in taste, bitter and slimy.
Madhusigru is laxative, bitter, cures swelling, kindles digestion and is pungent.
Read – Moringa Benefits, Medicinal Usage, Complete Ayurveda Details

Sarsapa Saka

विदाहि बद्धविण्मूत्रं रूक्षं तीक्ष्णोष्णमेव च |
त्रिदोषं सार्षपं शाकं गाण्डीरं वेगनाम च ||२३८||

Sarsapa Saka causes heartburn, obstructs faeces and urine, is dry, penetrating, hot in potency, and aggravates all the three doshas; so also, Gandira Saka and Veganama Saka.

Citraka and Tilaparni, Varsabhu

चित्रकस्तिलपर्णी च कफशोफहरे लघू |
वर्षाभूः कफवातघ्नी हिता शोफोदरार्शसाम् ||२३९||

Citraka and Tilaparni mitigate Kapha, cure swelling, and are easily digestible. Varsabhu mitigates kapha and Vata and is beneficial in dropsy, enlargement of the Abdomen and piles.
Read – Chitrak – Plumbago zeylanica Benefits, Dose, Side Effects, Research

कटुतिक्तरसा हृद्या रोचनी वह्निदीपनी |
सर्वदोषहरा लघ्वी कण्ठ्या मूलकपोतिका ||२४०||
महत्तद्गुरु विष्टम्भि तीक्ष्णमामं त्रिदोषकृत् |
तदेव स्नेहसिद्धं तु पित्तनुत् कफवातजित् ||२४१||
त्रिदोषशमनं शुष्कं विषदोषहरं लघु |
विष्टम्भि वातलं शाकं शुष्कमन्यत्र मूलकात् ||२४२||
पुष्पं च पत्रं च फलं तथैव यथोत्तरं ते गुरवः प्रदिष्टाः |
तेषां तु पुष्पं कफपित्तहन्तृ फलं निहन्यात् कफमारुतौ तु ||२४३||

Mulaka Potika (tender / young Mulaka) is pungent and bitter in taste; good for heart, bestows taste, kindles digestion, and mitigates all the doshas, easy for digestion and good for the throat. Mahatmulak (bigger mulaka) when used raw (uncooked) is hard for digestion, stays long in the stomach without digestion, is penetrating and aggravates all the three Doshas. The same when processed / cooked with fats (oil / ghee) mitigates Pitta, Kapha and Vata. SuskaMulaka Saka (dry leaves of Mulaka) mitigates all three doshas, and effects poison, easy for digestion. All other leaves which are dry except that of mulaka stay long in the stomach without digestion and aggravate Vata. Its flowers, leaves and fruits (of Mulaka) are difficult for digestion in the succeeding order; while the flower mitigates kapha and Pitta. Fruits mitigate Kapha and Vata.

Rasona

स्निग्धोष्णतीक्ष्णः कटुपिच्छिलश्च गुरुः सरः स्वादुरसश्च बल्यः |
वृष्यश्च मेधास्वरवर्णचक्षुर्भग्नास्थिसन्धानकरो रसोनः ||२४४||
हृद्रोगजीर्णज्वरकुक्षिशूलविबन्धगुल्मारुचिकासशोफान् |
दुर्नामकुष्ठानलसादजन्तुसमीरणश्वासकफांश्च हन्ति ||२४५||
Rasona is unctuous, hot in potency, penetrating, pungent, slimy, difficult for digestion, laxative, sweet in taste, bestows strength, is aphrodisiac, improves voice, color / complexion, and vision; unites broken bones, cures heart diseases, chronic fever, pain for the abdomen, constipation, abdominal tumor, loss of taste, cough, oedema, piles, leprosy (and some other skin diseases), poor digestive power, worms, diseases of vata origin, dyspnoea, and diseases of Kapha origin.
Read – Garlic Benefits, Research, Usage, Side Effects

Palandu

नात्युष्णवीर्योऽनिलहा कटुश्च तीक्ष्णो गुरुर्नातिकफावहश्च |
बलावहः पित्तकरोऽथ किञ्चित् पलाण्डुरग्निं च विवर्धयेत्तु ||२४६||
Palandu is not very hot in potency, mitigates vata, pungent, penetrating and difficult for digestion, not increasing kapha greatly, bestows strength, increases Pitta slightly, and augments power of digestion.

Kshira Palandu

स्निग्धो रुचिष्यः स्थिरधातुकारी बल्योऽथ मेधाकफपुष्टिदश्च |
स्वादुर्गुरुः शोणितपित्तशस्तः सपिच्छिलः क्षीरपलाण्डुरुक्तः ||२४७||
Ksira Palandu (of white color) is unctuous, bestows taste, stability to the tissues, strength, improves intelligence, nourishes Kapha, is sweet in taste, difficult for digestion, beneficial for mitigating blood and pitta (or cures bleeding diseases) and is slimy.
Read – Onion Uses, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

Kalaya Saka

कलायशाकं पित्तघ्नं कफघ्नं वातलं गुरु |
कषायानुरसं चैव विपाके मधुरं च तत् ||२४८||
Kalaya Saka mitigates Pitta and Kapha, aggravates vata, hard for digestion, astringent in secondary taste and sweet after digestion.

Kasaya Madhura saka

Vegetables of astringent and sweet taste

चुच्चूयूथिकातरुणीजीवन्तीबिम्बीतिकानदी(न्दी)भल्लातकच्छगलान्त्री- वृक्षादनीफञ्जीशाल्मलीशेलुवनस्पतिप्रसवशणकर्बुदारकोविदारप्रभृतीनि ||२४९||
कषायस्वादुतिक्तानि रक्तपित्तहराणि च |
कफघ्नान्यनिलं कुर्युः सङ्ग्राहीणि लघूनि च ||२५०||
Cuccu, Yuthika, Taruni, Jivanti, Bimbitika, Nandi, Bhallataka, Chagalantri, Vrksadani, Phanji, Salmali, selu, Vanaspati prasava, Sana, Karbudara, Kovidara and such others are astringent, sweet and bitter in taste, cure bleeding disease, mitigate kapha, aggravates Vata, cause constipation and cure easily digestible.

Cucu

लघुः पाके च जन्तुघ्नः पिच्छिलो व्रणिनां हितः |
कषायमधुरो ग्राही चुच्चूस्तेषां त्रिदोषहा ||२५१||
Cuccu is easily digestable, destroys worms, is slimy, beneficial for patients of ulcers, astringent –sweet in taste, constipating and mitigates all the three doshas.

Jivanti and Vrksadani

चक्षुष्या सर्वदोषघ्नी जीवन्ती समुदाहृता |
वृक्षादनी वातहरा, फञ्जी त्वल्पबला मता ||२५२||
Jivanti is good for eyes (vision) and mitigates all the Dosas.
Vrksadani mitigates Vata and Phanji is slightly strengthened.
Read – Jivanti Leptadenia reticulata: Benefits, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

क्षीरवृक्षोत्पलादीनां कषायाः पल्लवाः स्मृताः |
शीताः सङ्ग्राहिणः शस्ता रक्तपित्तातिसारिणाम् ||२५३||

Tender leaves of trees yielding milky sap, utphala etc, are astringent, cold in potency, constipating and beneficial for patients of bleeding diseases and diarrhea.

Svadu – Tikta vegetables

Vegetables of sweet and bitter taste

Punarnava, Varuna etc

पुनर्नवावरुणतर्कार्युरुबूकवत्सादनीबिल्वशाकप्रभृतीनि ||२५४||
उष्णानि स्वादुतिक्तानि वातप्रशमनानि च |
तेषु पौनर्नवं शाकं विशेषाच्छोफनाशनम् ||२५५||

Punarnava, Varuna, Tarkari, Urubuka, Vatsadani, Bilvasaka and such others are hot in potency, sweet and bitter in taste and mitigate vata.
Punarnavasaka, among these, cures dropsy especially.

Svadu- Ksara group

Vegetables of sweet and alkaline taste

Tanduliyaka, Upodika etc

तण्डुलीयकोपोदकाऽश्वबलाचिल्लीपालङ्क्यावास्तूकप्रभृतीनि ||२५६||
सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि सक्षारमधुराणि च |
मन्दवातकफान्याहू रक्तपित्तहराणि च ||२५७||

Tanduliyaka, Upodika, Asvabala, Cilli, Palankya, Vastuka and such others help elimination of urine and faeces, are slightly alkaline – sweet in taste, cause of mild increase of vata and kapha and cure bleeding diseases.

Tanduliyaka

मधुरो रसपाकाभ्यां रक्तपित्तमदापहः |
तेषां शीततमो रूक्षस्तण्डुलीयो विषापहः ||२५८||
Tanduliyaka is sweet both in taste and after digestion, cures bleeding disease and intoxication, very cold in potency, dry (cause dryness) and removes poison.

Upodika

स्वादुपाकरसा वृष्या वातपित्तमदापहा |
उपोदका सरा स्निग्धा बल्या श्लेष्मकरी हिमा ||२५९||

Upodika is sweet both in taste after digestion, is aphrodisiac, mitigates vata, pitta and intoxication, laxative, unctuous, increases strength and kapha and cold in potency.
Read – Malabar Spinach – Uses, Remedies, Benefits, Research

Vastuka

कटुर्विपाके कृमिहा मेधाग्निबलवर्धनः |
सक्षारः सर्वदोषघ्नो वास्तूको रोचनः सरः ||२६०||
Vastuka is pungent after digestion, kills worms, and augments intelligence, digestive power and strength of the body, slightly alkaline in taste, mitigates all the three Doshas, helps taste and is laxative.

Cilli and Palankya

चिल्ली वास्तूकवज्ज्ञेया पालङ्क्या तण्डुलीयवत् |
वातकृद्बद्धविण्मूत्रा रूक्षा पित्तकफे हिता |
शाकमाश्वबलं रूक्षं बद्धविण्मूत्रमारुतम् ||२६१||
Cilli is similar to Vastuka in properties and Palankya is similar to Tanduliyaka – these obstruct faeces and urine, causing dryness, beneficial to mitigate Pitta and kapha.

Asvabala Saka is dry (causes dryness) and obstructs of faeces and urine.

Tikta rasa Saka

Vegetables of bitter taste

मण्डूकपर्णीसप्तलासुनिषण्णकसुवर्चलापिप्पलीगुडूचीगोजिह्वा- काकमाचीप्रपुन्नाडावल्गुजसतीनबृहतीकण्टकारिकाफल- पटोलवार्ताककारवेल्लककटुकिकाकेबु(म्बु)कोरुबूकपर्पटककिराततिक्त- कर्कोटकारिष्टकोशातकीवेत्रकरीराटरूषकार्कपुष्पीप्रभृतीनि ||२६२||
Manduka Parni, Saptala, Sunisannaka, Suvarcala, Pippali, Guduci, Gojihva, Kakamaci, Prapunnada, Avalguja, Satina, Brhati, Kantakarkaphala, Patola, Vartaka, Karavella, Katukika, Kembuka, Urduka, Parpataka, Kirataktaka, Karkotaka, Aristaka, Kosataki, Vetrakarira, Atarusa, Arkapuspi and such others.

रक्तपित्तहराण्याहुर्हृद्यानि सुलघूनि च |
कुष्ठमेहज्वरश्वासकासारुचिहराणि च ||२६३||
These are said to cure bleeding diseases, good for the heart, easily digestible, cure leprosy, (and some skin disease), diabetes, fever, dyspnoea, cough, and loss of taste.
Read – Bitter Taste – Qualities, Health Benefits, Side Effects

Mandukaparni

कषाया तु हिता पित्ते स्वादुपाकरसा हिमा |
लघ्वी मण्डूकपर्णी तु तद्वद्गोजिह्विका मता ||२६४||
Mandukaparni is astringent, mitigates Pitta, sweet in taste, and after digestion, cold in potency and easily digestable. Gojihvika is similar to this (Mandukaparni).

Sunisannaka, Avalguja

अविदाही त्रिदोषघ्नः सङ्ग्राही सुनिषण्णकः |
अवल्गुजः कटुः पाके तिक्तः पित्तकफापहः ||२६५||

Sunisannaka does not cause heartburn, mitigates all the three Doshas and causes constipation.
Avalguja is pungent after digestion, bitter in taste, and mitigates pitta and Kapha.

Satina

ईषत्तिक्तं त्रिदोषघ्नं शाकं कटु सतीनजम् |
नात्युष्णशीतं कुष्ठघ्नं काकमाच्यास्तु तद्विधम् ||२६६||
Satina saka is slightly bitter, mitigates all the three Doshas, pungent in taste, neither very hot nor very cold in potency and cures leprosy (and other skin diseases). Kakamaci is similar in properties.

Brhatiphala

कण्डूकुष्ठकृमिघ्नानि कफवातहराणि च |
फलानि बृहतीनां तु कटुतिक्तलघूनि च ||२६७||
Brhati phala cures itching, leprosy (and other skin diseases) and worms mitigates Kapha and vata, pungent and bitter in taste and easily digestible.

Patola

कफपित्तहरं व्रण्यमुष्णं तिक्तमवातलम् |
पटोलं कटुकं पाके वृष्यं रोचनदीपनम् ||२६८||
Patola mitigates Kapha and pitta, good for ulcers, hot in potency, bitter in taste, does not increase Vata, pungent after digestion, is aphrodisiac, helps taste and kindles digestion.

Vartaka / Karkotaka and Karavellaka

कफवातहरं तिक्तं रोचनं कटुकं लघु |
वार्ताकं दीपनं प्रोक्तं जीर्णं सक्षारपित्तलम् |तद्वत् कर्कोटकं विद्यात् कारवेल्लकमेव च ||२६९||
Vartaka mitigates kapha and Vata, bitter in taste, helps taste, pungent, easily digestible, and kindles digestion. Ripe fruits are slightly alkaline in taste and increase Pitta. Karkotaka and Karavellaka are similar to it (Vartaka) in properties.

Atarusa, etc

आटरूषकवेत्राग्रगुडूचीनिम्बपर्पटाः |
किराततिक्तसहितास्तिक्ताः पित्तकफापहाः ||२७०||
Atarusa, Vetragra (Vetrakarira), Guduci, Nimba, Parpata and KirataTikta are bitter in taste, mitigate Pitta and Kapha.

Varuna and Prapunnata Saka

कफापहं शाकमुक्तं वरुणप्रपुनाड(ट)योः |
रूक्षं लघु च शीतं च वातपित्तप्रकोपणम् ||२७१||
Varuna and Prapunnata Sakas mitigate Kapha, cause dryness, are easily digestible, cold in potency and cause aggravation of Vata and Pitta.

Kalasaka / Kusumbha

दीपनं कालशाकं तु गरदोषहरं कटु|
कौसुम्भं मधुरं रूक्षमुष्णं श्लेष्महरं लघु ||२७२||

Kalasaka kindles digestion, removes the effects of artificial poison, and is pungent in taste.
Kusumbha Saka is sweet in taste, causes dryness, hot in potency, mitigates Kapha and is easily digestible.

Nalika saka

वातलं नालिकाशाकं पित्तघ्नं मधुरं च तत् |
ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नी साम्ला वातकफे हिता |
उष्णा कषायमधुरा चाङ्गेरी चाग्निदीपनी ||२७३||
Nalikasaka increases Vata and mitigates Pitta and its taste. Cangeri cures duodenal disease, and piles, slightly sour, beneficial in Vata and kapha aggravation, hot in potency, astringent and sweet and kindles digestion.

Swadu Paka rasa saka

Vegetables of sweet taste- both before and after digestion

Lonika, Jatuka etc

लोणिकाजातुकत्रिपर्णिकापत्तूरजीवकसुवर्चलाडुडुरककुतुम्बककुठिञ्जरकुन्तलिकाकुरण्टिकाप्रभृतयः ||२७४||
Lonika, Jatuka, Triparnika, Pattura, Jivaka, Suvarcala, duduraka, Kutumba, Kuthinjara, Kurantika and such others

स्वादुपाकरसाः शीताः कफघ्ना नातिपित्तलाः |
लवणानुरसा रूक्षाः सक्षारा वातलाः सराः ||२७५||

These are sweet in taste and after digestion, cold, impotency, mitigates kapha, not increasing Pitta greatly, salty in secondary taste, causes dryness, slightly alkaline in taste, increases vata and laxative.
Read – 13 Hazards And Precautions Related To Vegetables As Per Ayurveda

Kuntalika, Kurantika, Raja Ksavaka

स्वादुतिक्ता कुन्तलिका कषाया सकुरण्टिका |२७६|
सङ्ग्राहि शीतलं चापि लघु दोषापहं तथा |
राजक्षवकशाकं तु शटीशाकं च तद्विधम् ||२७६||
Kuntalika is sweet and bitter and Kurantika is astringent. Raja Ksavaka is constipating, cold in potency, easily digestable, and mitigates the Doshas. Satisaka is similar in properties.

Harimantha Saka, Kalayasaka

स्वादुपाकरसं शाकं दुर्जरं हरिमन्थजम् |
भेदनं मधुरं रूक्षं कालायमतिवातलम् ||२७७||
Harimantha Saka is sweet both in taste and after digestion and difficult for digestion.
Kalayasaka breaks the faeces (causes purgation), is sweet in taste, causes dryness and aggravates Vata greatly.

Puti Karanja

स्रंसनं कटुकं पाके लघु वातकफापहम् |
शोफघ्नमुष्णवीर्यं च पत्रं पूतिकरञ्जजम् ||२७८||
Puti Karanja saka is laxative, pungent after digestion, easily digestable, mitigates Vata and Kapha, cures oedema and hot in potency.

Tambula Patra

ताम्बूलपत्रं तीक्ष्णोष्णं कटु पित्तप्रकोपणम् |
सुगन्धि विशदं तिक्तं स्वर्यं वातकफापहम् ||२७९||
स्रंसनं कटुकं पाके कषायं वह्निदीपनम् |
वक्त्रकण्डूमलक्लेददौर्गन्ध्यादिविशोधनम् ||२८०||
Tambula Patra is penetrating, hot in potency, pungent in tate aggravates Pitta, has pleasant odour, non-slimy, bitter, good for voice, and mitigates Vata and kapha; laxative, pungent after digestion, astringent, kindles digestion (power of digestion), removes itching, dirt, moistness, bad smell etc. from the mouth and cleanses it.

अथ पुष्पवर्गः|   

Puspa saka- flower vegetables

Kovidara, Salmali, Sana, Vrsa, Agastya

कोविदारशणशाल्मलीपुष्पाणि मधुराणि मधुरविपाकानि रक्तपित्तहराणि च; वृषागस्त्ययोः पुष्पाणि तिक्तानि कटुविपाकानि क्षयकासापहानि च ||२८१||
a) Kovidara, Sana and Salmali- flower of these are sweet both in taste and after digestion and cure bleeding diseases.
Flowers of Vrsa and Agastya are bitter, pungent after digestion and cure cough of consumption.
Read – Shalmali, Silk Cotton Tree: Ayurveda Use, Medicines, Home Remedies

Agastya Puspa

आगस्त्यं नातिशीतोष्णं नक्तान्धानां प्रशस्यते ||२८२||
Agastya flower is not too hot or cold in potency, and best suited / beneficial for persons of night blindness.

Karira Puspa

करीरकुसुमानि कटुविपाकानि वातहराणि सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि च ||२८३||
Karira flowers are pungent after digestion, mitigates Vata and help elimination and urine.

Rakta Vrksa, Nimba etc

रक्तवृक्षस्य निम्बस्य मुष्ककार्कासनस्य च |
कफपित्तहरं पुष्पं कुष्ठघ्नं कुटजस्य च ||२८४||
b) Rakta Vrksa (Rakta Candana), Nimba, Muskaka, Arka, Asana and Kutaja flowers of these, mitigates Kapha and Pitta; cure leprosy (and other skin diseases).

Padma, Kumuda, Kuvalaya, Utpala

सतिक्तं मधुरं शीतं पद्मं पित्तकफापहम् |
मधुरं पिच्छिलं स्निग्धं कुमुदं ह्लादि शीतलम् |
तस्मादल्पान्तरगुणे विद्यात् कुवलयोत्पले ||२८५||
c) Padma is slightly bitter, sweet in taste, cold in potency, and mitigates pitta and Kapha. Kumuda is sweet, slimy, unctouous, pleasing to the mind and cold in potency. Kuvalaya and Utpala are slightly inferior in properties.

Sindhuvara Puspa, Malati, Mallika

सिन्धुवारं विजानीयाद्धिमं पित्तविनाशनम् |
मालतीमल्लिके तिक्ते सौरभ्यात् पित्तनाशने ||२८६||

Sindhuvara puspa is to be understood as cold in potency and mitigates pitta. Malati and Mallika flowers are bitter and mitigate pitta by their sweet odour.
Read – Nav mallika (Jasminum arborescens) – Uses, Qualities, Side Effects

Bakula Puspa, Patala Puspa, Naga Puspa, Kumkuma

सुगन्धि विशदं हृद्यं बाकुलं पाटलानि च |
श्लेष्मपित्तविषघ्नं तु नागं तद्वच्च कुङ्कुमम् ||२८७||

BakulaPuspa and Patalapuspa have good smell, are non-slimy, good for the heart (or mind), Nagapushpa (Naga Kesara) mitigates Kapha and Pitta and destroys poison. Kumkuma is similar in properties.

Campaka, Kimsuka, Kurantaka

चम्पकं रक्तपित्तघ्नं शीतोष्णं कफनाशनम् |
किंशुकं कफपित्तघ्नं तद्वदेव कुरण्टकम् ||२८८||

Campaka flower cures bleeding disease, cold and /or hot in potency, and mitigates Kapha. Kimsuka flower mitigates Kapha and Pitta. Kurantaka is similar in properties.

Madhusigru, Karira

यथावृक्षं विजानीयात् पुष्पं वृक्षोचितं तथा |
मधुशिग्रुकरीराणि कटूनि श्लेष्महराणि च ||२८९||

Properties of flowers are the same as the properties of their trees.
Madhusigru and Karira are pungent in taste and mitigate Kapha.
Read – Kareera – Capparis decidua Uses, Dose, Research, Side Effects

Ksavaka, Kulevara etc

क्षवककुलेवरवंशकरीरप्रभृतीनि कफकराणि सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि च ||२९०||
d) Ksavaka, Kulevara, Vamsakarira and such others aggravate Kapha and help eliminate of urine and faeces.

Ksavaka

क्षवकं कृमिलं तेषु स्वादुपाकं सपिच्छलम् |
विस्यन्दि वातलं नातिपित्तश्लेष्मकरं च तत् ||२९१||

Ksavaka, among these, gives rise to worms, is sweet after digestion, slimy, increases flow of saliva and other fluids, aggravates vata, does not    increase Pitta and Kapha greatly.

Venu Karira

वेणोः करीराः कफला मधुरा रसपाकतः |
विदाहिनो वातकराः सकषाया विरूक्षणाः ||२९२||

VenuKarira (VamsaKarira) increases Kapha; sweet both in taste and after digestion, causes heartburn, aggravates Vata, slightly astringent in taste and causes dryness inside.

Udbhida

उद्भिदानि पलालेक्षुकरीषवेणुक्षितिजानि |
तत्र पलालजातं मधुरं मधुरविपाकं रूक्षं दोषप्रशमनं च |
इक्षुजं मधुरं कषायानुरसं कटुपाकं शीतलं च |
तद्वदेवोष्णं कारीषं कषायं वातकोपनं च, (वेणुजातं कषायं वातकोपनं च,) भूमिजं गुरु नातिवातलं भूमितश्चास्यानुरसः ||२९३||

Udbhida Saka – Mushrooms

Udbhida are those born from Palala (straw, hay), Iksu (sugarcane) Karisa (cow dung), venu (Bamboo) and Ksiti (earth). That  born from  straw / hay is sweet both in taste and after digestion, causes dryness and mitigates the doshas; that born from sugarcane is sweet with astringent as secondary taste, pungent after digestion and cold in potency;  that born from cowdung is similar in properties, in potency , astringent in taste and aggravates Vata, that born from  bamboo is astringent and aggravates vata; that born from the earth is hard for digestion, does not aggravate vata greatly and has the same qualities as of the earth.
Read – Mushrooms: Uses, Remedies, Research, Side Effects

Pinyaka etc

पिण्याकतिलकल्कस्थूणिकाशुष्कशाकानि सर्वदोषप्रकोपणानि ||२९४||
Pinyaka (oil cake of tila), Tila Kalka (paste of tila), Sthunika (vata) and Suska Saka (dried leafy vegetables) cause aggravation of all the three Doshas.

Vataka, Sindaki

विष्टम्भिनः स्मृताः सर्वे वटका वातकोपनाः |२९५|
सिण्डाकी वातला सार्द्रा रुचिष्याऽनलदीपनी ||२९५||

Vataka (Vada) of all kinds – stay long in the stomach without digestion and cause aggravation of vata.
Sindaki, when moist, aggravates vata, helps to enhance taste and kindles digestive fire.

Svadu Sakham

विड्भेदि गुरु रूक्षं च प्रायो विष्टम्भि दुर्जरम् |
सकषायं च सर्वं हि स्वादु शाकमुदाहृतम् |
पुष्पं पत्रं फलं नालं कन्दाश्च गुरवः क्रमात् ||२९६||
All vegetables of sweet taste help easy movement of bowels, are hard for digestion, cause dryness, mostly stay long in the stomach, difficult for digestion, and slightly astringent in taste.
Flowers, leaves, fruits stalk and tubers are hard for digestion in their succeeding order.

Patra Saka

कर्कशं परिजीर्णं च कृमिजुष्टमदेशजम् |
वर्जयेत् पत्रशाकं तद्यदकालविरोहि च ||२९७||
इति शाकवर्गः

Leafy vegetables which are rough, very old, worm infested, grown in unhealthy pleaces and unseasonal ones should be rejected.

Kanda varga

अथ कन्दवर्गः

4. Kanda Saka- tubers/rhizomes etc

कन्दानात ऊर्ध्वं वक्ष्यामः- विदारीकन्दशतावरीबिसमृणालशृङ्गाटककशेरुकपिण्डालुकमध्वालुक- हस्त्यालुककाष्ठालुकशङ्खालुकरक्तालुकेन्दीवरोत्पलकन्दप्रभृतीनि ||२९८||
Now we will describe, Kanda- tubers rhizomes (used as vegetables).

  1. Vidarikanda, Satavari, Bisa, Mrnala, Srngaaka, Kaseruka, Pindaluka, Madhvaluka, Hastyaluka, Kasthaluka, sankhaluka, Raktaluka, Indivara, UtpalaKanda and such others.

रक्तपित्तहराण्याहुः शीतानि मधुराणि च |
गुरूणि बहुशुक्राणि स्तन्यवृद्धिकराणि च ||२९९||

These all-cure bleeding diseases, are cold in potency, sweet in taste, hard for digestion, increase semen greatly and augment breastmilk.

Vidarikanda

मधुरो बृंहणो वृष्यः शीतः स्वर्योऽतिमूत्रलः |
विदारीकन्दो बल्यश्च पित्तवातहरश्च सः ||३००||
Vidarikanda is sweet, stoutening, aphrodisiac, and cold in potency, good for voice, increases urine greatly, strengthening and mitigates pitta and Vata.

Satavari Kanda

वातपित्तहरी वृष्या स्वादुतिक्ता शतावरी |
महती चैव हृद्या च मेधाग्निबलवर्धिनी ||३०१||
ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नी वृष्या शीता रसायनी |
कफपित्तहरास्तिक्तास्तस्या एवाङ्कुराः स्मृताः ||३०२||

Satavari Kanda mitigates vata and pitta, is aphrodisiac, sweet and bitter in taste, the bigger kind (of Satavari) is good for the heart, increases intelligence, digestive power, and strength. Its sprouts, (shoots, young leaf buds) cure duodenal disease and piles, is aphrodisiac, cold in potency, rejuvenator, mitigates Kapha and Pitta and bitter in taste.

Bisa

अविदाहि बिसं प्रोक्तं रक्तपित्तप्रसादनम् |
विष्टम्भि दुर्जरं रूक्षं विरसं मारुतावहम् ||३०३||
Bisa (rhizome/ root of lotus) does not cause heartburn, cures bleeding disease (of purifies blood and Pitta), stays long in the stomach without digestion, is hard for digestion, causes dryness and bad taste in the mouth, and increases Vata.
Read – Lotus – Nelumbo nucifera Benefits, Side Effects, Research

Srngataka and Kaseruka, Pindaluka

गुरू विष्टम्भिशीतौ च शृङ्गाटककशेरुकौ |
पिण्डालुकं कफकरं गुरु वातप्रकोपणम् ||३०४||
Srngataka and Kaseruka are hard for digestion, stay long in the stomach without digestion and cold in potency. Pindaluka increases Kapha, hard for digestion, aggravates Vata.

Surendra Kanda

सुरेन्द्रकन्दः श्लेष्मघ्नो विपाके कटु पित्तकृत् |३०५|
Surendra Kanda (vajrakanda according to dalhana) mitigates Kapha, pungent after digestion and increases Pitta.

Venu karira

वेणोः करीरा गुरवः कफमारुतकोपनाः ||३०५||
Venu karira (young shoot of Bamboo) is hard for digestion and causes aggravation of kapha and Vata.
Read – Bamboo (Bambusa bambos) Uses, Research, Medicines, Side Effects

Sthula, Surana

स्थूलसूरणमाणकप्रभृतयः कन्दा ईषत्कषायाः कटुका रूक्षा विष्टम्भिनो गुरवः कफवातलाः पित्तहराश्च ||३०६||
Sthula (khanda), Surana (Kanda) and such other tubers are slightly astringent, and pungent in taste, cause dryness, stay long in the stomach, hard for digestion, increase Kapha and Vata mitigates Pitta.

Manakanda, Sthula kanda, Surana kanda

मान(ण)कं स्वादु शीतं च गुरु चापि प्रकीर्तितम् |
स्थूलकन्दस्तु नात्युष्णः सूरणो गुदकीलहा ||३०७||

Manaka kanda is sweet, cold in potency and hard for digestion, Sthula Kanda is not very hot in potency; surana Kanda cures piles.

Kumuda, Utpala, Padma kanda

कुमुदोत्पलपद्मानां कन्दा मारुतकोपनाः |
कषायाः पित्तशमना विपाके मधुरा हिमाः ||३०८||

Kanda of Kumuda, Utpala and Padma aggravates Vata, is astringent, mitigates pitta, sweet after digestion, and cold in potency.
Read – Water Lily – Kumuda Benefits, Side Effects, Research

Varaha Kanda

वाराहकन्दः श्लेष्मघ्नः कटुको रसपाकतः |
मेहकुष्ठकृमिहरो बल्यो वृष्यो रसायनः ||३०९||
Varaha Kanda mitigates Kapha, pungent both in taste after digestion, cures diabetes, leprosy (and other skin diseases) and worms, bestows strength, is aphrodisiac and rejuvenator.

Mastaka Majja of Tala etc

तालनारिकेलखर्जूरप्रभृतीनां मस्तकमज्जानः ||३१०||
स्वादुपाकरसानाहू रक्तपित्तहरांस्तथा |
शुक्रलाननिलघ्नांश्च कफवृद्धिकरानपि ||३११||

c) Mastaka Majja (fatty material present at the head of trees) such as of Tala, Narikela, Kharjura and such others; are sweet both in taste and after digestion, cure bleeding disease, increase semen, mitigates vata and aggravates Kapha.

बालं ह्यनार्तवं जीर्णं व्याधितं क्रिमिभक्षितम् |
कन्दं विवर्जयेत् सर्वं यो वा सम्यङ्न रोहति ||३१२||

All kinds of Kanda (others) which are young, unseasonal, very old, diseased, eaten by worms, and insects and which do not grow well should be rejected.

इतिकन्दवर्गः।
Thus ends Kanda varga- group of tubers.

अथ लवणवर्गः॥

V. Lavana Varga – group of salts

अथ लवणानि- सैन्धवसामुद्रविडसौवर्चलरोमकौद्भिदप्रभृतीनि यथोत्तरमुष्णानि वातहराणि कफपित्तकराणि कटुपाकीनि यथापूर्वं स्निग्धानि स्वादूनि सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाणि चेति ||३१३||
Next the Lavanas (salt): –

  1. Saindhava, Samudra, Bida, Sauvarcala, Romaka, Audbhida and such others; these are hot in potency, more in their succeeding order, mitigate Vata, aggravates Kapha and pitta, pungent after digestion, unctuous more in their preceeding order, sweet in taste and cause elimination of urine and faeces.
    Read – Salt Taste – Types, Qualities, Health Benefits, Side Effects

Saindhava Lavana

चक्षुष्यं सैन्धवं हृद्यं रुच्यं लघ्वग्निदीपनम् |
स्निग्धं समधुरं वृष्यं शीतं दोषघ्नमुत्तमम् ||३१४||
Saindhava lavana is good for eyes (vision), heart and taste, easy for digestion, kindles digestion, unctuous, slightly sweet, aphrodisiac, and cold in potency and best to mitigate the doshas.

Samudra Lavana

सामुद्रं मधुरं पाके नात्युष्णमविदाहि च |
भेदन स्निग्धमीषच्च शूलघ्नं नातिपित्तलम् ||३१५||
Samudra lavana is sweet after digestion, not very hot in potency, does not cause heartburn, purgative, slightly unctuous, relieves colic and does not increase pitta greatly.

Bida Lavana

सक्षारं दीपनं सूक्ष्मं शूलहृद्रोगनाशनम् |
रोचनं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं च विडं वातानुलोमनम् ||३१६||
Bida is slightly alkaline in taste, kindles digestion, enters into minute channels, cures colic and heart diseases, helps taste, is penetrating, hot in potency and eliminates flatus.

Sauvarcala Lavana

लघु सौवर्चलं पाके वीर्योष्णं विशदं कटु |
गुल्मशूलविबन्धघ्नं हृद्यं सुरभि रोचनम् ||३१७||
Sauvarcala is Laghupaka (pungent after digestion), hot in potency, nonslimy, pungent in taste, cures abdominal tumors, colic and constipation, good for heart, fragrant and bestows taste.

Romaka Lavana

रोमकं तीक्ष्णमत्युष्णं व्यवायि कटुपाकि च |
वातघ्नं लघु विस्यन्दि सूक्ष्मं विड्भेदि मूत्रलम् ||३१८||

Romaka is penetrating, very hot in potency, spreading quickly all over the body, pungent after digestion, mitigates Vata, easily digestible, increasing moisture, subtle (entering into minute channels), purgative and diuretic.

Audbhida Lavana

लघु तीक्ष्णोष्णमुत्क्लेदि सूक्ष्मं वातानुलोमनम् |
सतिक्तं कटु सक्षारं विद्याल्लवणमौद्भिदम् ||३१९||
Audbhida is easily digestable, penetrating, and hot in potency, causes nausea, enters into minute channels, and eliminates flatus and faeces, pungent, slightly bitter and slightly alkaline in taste.

Gutika Lavana

कफवातक्रिमिघ्नं च लेखनं पित्तकोपनम् |
दीपनं पाचनं भेदि लवणं गुटिकाह्वयम् ||३२०||

Gutika Lavana mitigates Kapha and Vata, kills (eliminates) worms, is scarificant, aggravates Pitta, kindles digestion, is digestant, and purgative.

ऊषसूतं वालुकैलं शैलमूलाकरोद्भवम् |
लवणं कटुकं छेदि विहितं कटु चोच्यते ||३२१||

Salts obtained from alkaline soil, sandy soil, mountain slopes and mines are pungent and said to be suitable for tearing (and removing) the tissues.

b. Ksaras (alkalies)

यवक्षारस्वर्जिकाक्षारोषक्षारपाकिमटङ्कणक्षारप्रभृतयः॥
गुल्मार्शोग्रहणीदोषशर्कराश्मरिनाशनाः॥       
क्षारास्तुपाचनाः सर्वे रक्तपित्तकराः सराः॥३२२॥

Yavakas, Svarjika Ksara, Usaksara, Pakima (Ksara), Tankana (ksara) and such others,
All Kasaras (Alkalies) cure abdominal tumors, piles, duodenal diseases, urinary gravel and calculi, are digestive, cause bleeding diseases and are laxatives.

Svarjika and Yavasukaja

ज्ञेयौ बह्निसमौ क्षारौ स्वर्जिकायावशूकजौ॥
शुक्रश्लेष्मविबन्धार्शोगुल्मप्लीहविनाशनौ॥३२३॥

Svarjika and Yavasukaja (made from bristles of barleyhttps://www.easyayurveda.com/2022/11/07/svarna-gold/) should be understood as equal to fire in action (cause burns), decrease semen, Kapha and cure constipation, piles, abdominal tumors and diseases of the spleen.

Usaksara, Pakima ksara

उष्णोऽनिलघ्नः प्रक्लेदी चोषक्षारो बलापहः॥
मेदोघ्नः पाकिमः क्षारस्तेषां बस्तिविशोधनः॥३२४॥

Usaksara is hot in potency, mitigates vata, creates more moisture and diminishes strength.
Pakimaksara diminishes fat and cleanses the urinary bladder.

Tankana Ksara

विरूक्षणोऽनिलकरः श्लेष्मघ्नः पित्तदूषणः॥
अग्रिदीप्तिकरस्तीक्ष्णष्टङ्कणः क्षार उच्यते॥३२५॥

Tankana Kshara causes dryness, increases Vata, mitigates Kapha, vitiates pitta, kindles digestion and is penetrating into the tissues.

b. Dhatu- Metals

Suvarna

सुवर्णं स्वादु हृद्यं च बृंहणीयं रसायनम् |
दोषत्रयापहं शीतं चक्षुष्यं विषसूदनम् ||३२६||

Suvarna (gold) is sweet, good for the heart, stoutens the body, rejuvenates, mitigates all the three doshas, cold in potency, good for eyes (vision), and destroys poison.

Raupya and Tamra

रूप्यमम्लं सरं शीतं सस्नेहं पित्तवातनुत् |
ताम्रं कषायं मधुरं लेखनं शीतलं सरम् ||३२७||

Rupya (silver) is sour in taste, laxative, cold in potency, slightly unctuous, mitigates Pitta and vata.
Tamra (copper) is astringent and sweet in taste, is scarification, cold in potency and laxative.

Kamsya and Loha

सतिक्तं लेखनं कांस्यं चक्षुष्यं कफवातजित् |
वातकृच्छीतलं लोहं तृष्णापित्तकफापहम् ||३२८||
Kamsya (bronze) is slightly bitter, scarification, good for vision and mitigates Kapha and Vata.
Loha (iron) increases Vata, cold in potency, mitigates thirst, Pitta and Kapha.

Trapu, Sisa

कटु क्रिमिघ्नं लवणं त्रपु सीसं च लेखनम् |
Trapu (tin) Sisa (lead) are pungent, destroy worms, salty and scarificants.

b. Mani- gems/precious stones

Mukta etc

मुक्ताविद्रुमवज्रेन्द्रवैदूर्यस्फटिकादयः ||३२९||
Mukta (peral), vidaruma (coal), Vajrendra (diamond), Vaidurya (beryl / cats’ eye), Sphatika (rock crystal) and such others,

Mani

चक्षुष्या मणयः शीता लेखना विषसूदनाः |
पवित्रा धारणीयाश्च पाप्मालक्ष्मीमलापहाः ||३३०||

Mani (gems) are good for the eyes (vision), cold in potency, scarificants, destroys poison, auspicious, suitable to be worn on the body as ornaments, dispel sin, inauspiciousneess (witchcraft, sorcery etc) and other blemishes.

इति लवणादिवर्गः
Thus ends Lavanadi varga – group of salt etc

धान्येषु मांसेषु फलेषु चैव शाकेषु चानुक्तमिहाप्रमेयात् |
आस्वादतो भूतगुणैश्च मत्वा तदादिशेद्द्रव्यमनल्पबुद्धिः ||३३१||

Any substance belonging to the group of dhanya (corns), Mamsa (meat), Phala (fruit) and saka (vegetables) not mentioned here, due to ignorance, the wise person should understand its qualities by its tastes and properties of the bhutas (five primary elements constituting it).

Varga Pradanatama dravya

Best substance of each group

Best among Dhanya Varga

षष्टिका यवगोधूमा लोहिता ये च शालयः |
मुद्गाढकीमसूराश्च धान्येषु प्रवराः स्मृताः ||३३२||
Sastika, Yava, Godhuma, Lohitasali, Adhaki and Masura are the best among Dhanyas (cereals, pulses, millets etc).

Best among Mamsa Varga

लावतित्तिरिसारङ्गकुरङ्गैणकपिञ्जलाः |
मयूरवर्मिकूर्माश्च श्रेष्ठा मांसगणेष्विह ||३३३||
Meat of Lava, tittiri, Saranga, Kuranga, Ena, Kapinjala, Mayura, Varmi and Kurma are best among Mamsavarga (group of meats);

Best among Phala Varga

दाडिमामलकं द्राक्षा खर्जूरं सपरूषकम् |
राजादनं मातुलुङ्गं फलवर्गे प्रशस्यते ||३३४||
Dadima, Amalaka, Draksa, Kharjura, Parusaka, Rajadana and Matulnga are best in Phalavarga (group of fruits).

Best among Saka Varga

सतीनो वास्तुकश्चुच्चूचिल्लीमूलकपोतिकाः |
मण्डूकपर्णी जीवन्ती शाकवर्गे प्रशस्यते ||३३५||
Satina, Vastuka, Cuccu, cilli, Mulaka, Potika, Mandukaparni and Jivanti are best in Sakavarga (group of vegetables).

Best among Ksira, Lavana, Amla, Katu, Tikta, Madhura, Kasaya Varga

गव्यं क्षीरं घृतं श्रेष्ठं, सैन्धवं लवणेषु च |
धात्रीदाडिममम्लेषु, पिप्पली नागरं कटौ ||३३६||
तिक्ते पटोलवार्ताकं, मधुरे घृतमुच्यते |
क्षौद्रं, पूगफलं श्रेष्ठं कषाये सपरूषकम् ||३३७||
Cow’s milk and ghee are the best in group of milk and ghee’ saindhava is best among salts; Dhatri and Dadima among sours; Pippali and Nagara among Pungents; Patola and Vartakka among bitters, Ghrta (ghee) and Ksaudra (honey) among sweets, Pugaphala and Parusaka among astringents.
Read – 21 Foods That Are Incompatible With Milk

Best among Iksu, Pana, Dhanya, Mamsa, Anna, Phala, Saka Varga

शर्करेक्षुविकारेषु, पाने मध्वासवौ तथा |
परिसंवत्सरं धान्यं, मांसं वयसि मध्यमे ||३३८||
अपर्युषितमन्नं तु संस्कृतं मात्रया शुभम् |
फलं पर्यागतं, शाकमशुष्कं तरुणं नवम् ||३३९||

Sarkara (sugar) is best among the products of sugarcane juice, Madhvasava among beverages.
Corns which are old by one year, meat of animals of middle age, prepared foods which are not stale (kept overnight) and suitably well processed (with addition of salt, spice etc), fruits which are not overripe, vegatables which have not dried, which are fresh are best for use.

अथ कृतान्नवर्गः।

VI. Krtanna Varga – Group of prepared foods

अतः परं प्रवक्ष्यामि कृतान्नगुणविस्तरम् |
Next, we will describe in detail the properties of krtanna (prepared foods).

Laja Manda

लाजमण्डो विशुद्धानां पथ्यः पाचनदीपनः ||३४०||
वातानुलोमनो हृद्यः पिप्पलीनागरायुतः |३४१|
Laja Manda (scum of gruel prepared with fried paddy) is best suitable to those who have undergone purificatory therapies (emesis, purgation etc), is digestive, kindles digestive fire (power), creates downward, movements of vata, (helps elimination of flatus, faeces, urine etc) and good for heart when added with little of pippali and Nagara.

Peya

स्वेदाग्निजननी लघ्वी दीपनी बस्तिशोधनी ||३४१||
क्षुत्तृट्श्रमग्लानिहरी पेया वातानुलोमनी |३४२|
Peya- (thin gruel) produces sweating, kindles digestion, easily digestible, cleanses the urinary bladder, relieves hunger, thirst, fatigue and exhaustion and helps eliminate flatus, (urine, faeces etc).

Vilepi

विलेपी तर्पणी हृद्या ग्राहिणी बलवर्धनी ||३४२||
पथ्या स्यादुरसा लघ्वी दीपनी क्षुत्तृषापहा |
हृद्या सन्तर्पणी वृष्या बृंहणी बलवर्धनी ||३४३||

शाकमांसफलैर्युक्ता विलेप्यम्ला च दुर्जरा |३४४|
Vilepi – (thick gruel) is nourishing, good for heart, constipating, enhances strength, suitable for health, sweet in taste, easily digestible, kindles digestion and relieves hunger and thirst. Vilepi added with vegetables, meat, fruits and sours is good for the heart, nourishing, aphrodisiac, stoutens the body, increases strength and is difficult for digestion.

Differences between Manda, Peya, Vilepi and Yavagu

सिक्थैर्विरहितो मण्डः पेया सिक्थसमन्विता ||३४४||
विलेपी बहुसिक्था स्याद्यवागूर्विरलद्रवा |३४५|
Manda- is gruel without boiled grains; peya is gruel with boiled grains; vilepi is gruel with more of boiled grains and Yavagu is gruel with very little of fluid (and more of grains).

Payasa

विष्टम्भी पायसो बल्यो मेदःकफकरो गुरुः ||३४५||
Payasa – (milk pudding, mixture of boiled rice and milk added with sugar or jaggery) stays long in the stomach, bestows strength, increases fat and Kapha and is hard for digestion.
Read – Kheer – Payasam: Ayurvedic Method Of Making, Benefits, Side Effects

Krsara

कफपित्तकरी बल्या कृशराऽनिलनाशनी |३४६|
Krsara – (thick gruel prepared by boiling tila – sesame, tandula – rice and masa – black gram), increases Kapha and Pitta, mitigates Vata and bestows strength.

Odana
धौतस्तु विमलः शुद्धो मनोज्ञः सुरभिः समः ||३४६||

स्विन्नः सुप्रस्रुतस्तूष्णो विशदस्त्वोदनो लघुः |
अधौतोऽप्रस्रुतोऽस्विन्नः शीतश्चाप्योदनो गुरुः ||३४७||
लघुः सुगन्धिः कफहा विज्ञेयो भृष्टतण्डुलः |

स्नेहैर्मांसैः फलैः कन्दैर्विदलाम्लैश्च संयुताः ||३४८||
गुरवो बृंहणा बल्या ये च क्षीरोपसाधिताः |३४९|

Odana- (porridge /cooked rice prepared with rice washed well) and free of dirt (bran) & pure is pleasing to the mind, has pleasant odour, well cooked (become soft), drained of fluid, hot, warm, non-slimy and easily digestible. That prepared from unwashed rice, not drained of its fluid, not well boiled (not soft) and which has become cold is hard for digestion. That prepared with fried rice should be understood as easily digestible, has pleasant smell and mitigates kapha. Odana (porridge) mixed with fats, meat, fruits, tubers, pulses, sours and milk becomes hard for digestion, is stoutening and bestows strength to the body.

Supa

सुस्विन्नो निस्तुषो भृष्ट ईषत् सूपो लघुर्हितः ||३४९||
The supa – soup prepared with grams / grains which are de-husked (husk removed), fried a little, steamed (boiled) – will be light (easy to digest) and beneficial. 

स्विन्नं निष्पीडितं शाकं हितं स्यात् स्नेहसंस्कृतम् |
अस्विन्नं स्नेहरहितमपीडितमतोऽन्यथा ||३५०||
Saka- vegetables boiled well and squeezed (to remove the fluid) and then processed with fats, is good for health, while unboiled, unsqueezed and devoid of fats is otherwise (not good for health).

Mamsa

मांसं स्वभावतो वृष्यं स्नेहनं बलवर्धनम् |
स्नेहगोरसधान्याम्लफलाम्लकटुकैः सह ||३५१||
सिद्धं मांसं हितं बल्यं रोचनं बृंहणं गुरु |
तदेव गोरसादानं सुरभिद्रव्यसंस्कृतम् ||३५२||

विद्यात्पित्तकफोद्रेकी बलमांसाग्निवर्धनम् |३५३|

Mamsa (meat) by its nature itself is aphrodisiac, unctuous (lubricating) and increasing in strength. Siddha mamsa – meat cooked with fats, milk, dhanyamla – sour / fermented gruel prepared with cereals, Phalamla (juice of sour fruits) and pungents is good for health, bestows strength, helps taste, is stoutening and difficult for digestion. The same added with milk and processed with fragrant substances (spices etc) should be understood as aggravating pitta and Kapha increasing body strength, growth of muscles and power of digestion.
Read – Dhanyamla Dhara, Kanji Dhara: Benefits, Procedure

Parisuska Mamsa

परिशुष्कं स्थिरं स्निग्धं हर्षणं प्रीणनं गुरु ||३५३||
रोचनं बलमेधाग्निमांसौजःशुक्रवर्धनम् |३५४|
Parisuska mamsa is stable / fixed / hard, unctuous, pleasing, nourishing, hard for digestion, bestows taste, increases strength, intelligence, digestive power, growth of muscles, ojas (vitatily) and semen.

Notes: -According to Dalhana, Parisuska Mamsa is meat fried with more quantity of ghee, sprinkled with hot water often, made soft and then processed with Jiraka etc. This solid piece of meat is known as Pariksuska Mamsa; the same place in milk becomes pradigdha Mamsa.

Ullupta

तदेवोल्लुप्तपिष्टत्वादुल्लुप्तमिति पाचकाः ||३५४||
The same (parisuska Mamsa) made into a paste is called by the cooks as Ullupta (ullupta mamsa – minced meat).

Pakya, Sulya and Paridagdha Mamsa

परिशुष्कगुणैर्युक्तं वह्नौ पक्वमतो लघु |
तदेव शूलिकाप्रोतमङ्गारपरिपाचितम् ||३५५||

ज्ञेयं गुरुतरं किञ्चित् प्रदिग्धं गुरुपाकतः |३५६|

Pakya Mamsa (meat roasted on flame of burning coal) has the same qualities as Parisuska Mamsa and is easy for digestion.
Sulya Mamsa (meat pierced with an iron rod and cooked / roasted on burning coal or flame) is to be understood as more difficult for digestion. Pradigdha Mamsa (roasted meat soaked in fats, milk etc) is slightly more difficult for digestion.

उल्लुप्तं भर्जितं पिष्टं प्रतप्तं कन्दुपाचितम् ||३५६||
परिशुष्कं प्रदिग्धं च शूल्यं यच्चान्यदीदृशम् |
मांसं यत्तैलसिद्धं तद्वीर्योष्णं पित्तकृद्गुरु ||३५७||
लघ्वग्निदीपनं हृद्यं रुच्यं दृष्टिप्रसादनम् |
अनुष्णवीर्यं पित्तघ्नं मनोज्ञं घृतसाधितम् ||३५८||

Ullapta (minced meat), Bharjita (fried in fats) meat paste, Kandupacita, Parisuska, Pradigdha, Sulya and such others which are prepared with the use of oil are hot in potency, aggravate Pitta and hard for digestion. The meat processed with ghee is light (easily digestible), kindles digestive power, good for the heart, bestows good taste, good for vision (bestows clarity of vision), not hot in potency, mitigates pitta and is pleasing to the mind.

Mamsarasa

प्रीणनः प्राणजननः श्वासकासक्षयापहः |
वातपित्तश्रमहरो हृद्यो मांसरसः स्मृतः ||३५९||
स्मृत्योजःस्वरहीनानां ज्वरक्षीणक्षतोरसाम् |
भग्नविश्लिष्टसन्धीनां कृशानामल्परेतसाम् ||३६०||
आप्यायनः संहननः शुक्रदो बलवर्धनः |
स दाडिमयुतो वृष्यः संस्कृतो दोषनाशनः ||३६१||

Mamsa rasa (meat soup) bestows contentment (nourishing), restores life, relieves dysponea, cough and consumption, mitigates Vata, Pitta and fatigue, good for the heart, satisfying to those who have loss of memory, vitality and voice, who have become weak by fevers, loss of tissues, injury to the chest (lungs), fractures and dislocation of bones and joints; the emaciated and poor of semen (sexual prowess); builds physique, unites bones, increases semen and strength (respectively). When added with Dadima it (meat soup) is aphrodisiac and when processed with pungents etc. it mitigates the Doshas.

Saurava

प्रीणनः सर्वभूतानां विशेषान्मुखशोषिणाम् |
क्षुत्तृष्णापहरः श्रेष्ठः सौरावः स्वादुशीतलः ||३६२||
Saurava- (scum of meat soup or broth)- is nourishing for all living beings (or for all tissues) specially for those having dryness of the mouth; relieves hunger, thirst, best for health, is sweet in taste and cold in potency.

यन्मांसमुद्धृतरसं न तत् पुष्टिबलावहम् |
विष्टम्भि दुर्जरं रूक्षं विरसं मारुतावहम् ||३६३||
Meat removed of its juice (by boiling and draining all the water) is not going to bestow nourishment and strength, stays long in the stomach, is difficult for digestion, causes dryness, bad to taste and aggravates Vata.

Khaniska

दीप्ताग्नीनां सदा पथ्यः खानिष्कस्तु परं गुरुः |३६४|
Khaniska- (kind of menu of meat) – is suitable always to persons having powerful digestive capacity and is very difficult for digestion.

Vesavara

मांसं निरस्थि सुस्विन्नं पुनर्दृषदि पेषितम् ||३६४||
पिप्पलीशुण्ठिमरिचगुडसर्पिःसमन्वितम् |
ऐकध्यं पाचयेत् सम्यग्वेसवार इति स्मृतः ||३६५||
वेसवारो गुरुः स्निग्धो बल्यो वातरुजापहः |३६६|
Vesavara- Meat devoid of bone, cooked by steam, made into a paste, adding Pippali, ginger, pepper, jaggery and ghee mixed well and all cooked together, this is known as Vesavara. It is hard for digestion, unctuous and strengthening and is beneficial for curing diseases of vata origin.

Yusa

कफघ्नो दीपनो हृद्यः शुद्धानां व्रणिनामपि ||३६६||
ज्ञेयः पथ्यतमश्चैव मुद्गयूषः कृताकृतः |३६७|
Yusa – (vegetable soup) – Mudga Yusa (soup of green gram) plain or processed – mitigates Kapha, kindles digestion, good for heart, ideally wholesome for (suited to persons) those who have been administered purificatory therapies (emesis, purgation etc) and the wounded.

Raga, Sadava

स तु दाडिममृद्वीकायुक्तः स्याद्रागषाडवः ||३६७||
रुचिष्यो लघुपाकश्च दोषाणां चाविरोधकृत् |३६८|
If it is added with Dadima and mrdvika it becomes Raga and sadava respectively. These help in enhancing taste; laghupaka (pungent after digestion) and does not oppose the doshas (does not alter the conditions of the doshas).
Read – Raga and Shadava Qualities And Health Benefits

Yusa prepared with Masura etc

मसूरमुद्गगोधूमकुलत्थलवणैः कृतः ||३६८||
कफपित्ताविरोधी स्याद्वातव्याधौ च शस्यते |३६९|
Yusa (soup) prepared from masura, Mudga, Godhuma, Kulattha and added with salt is not antagonistic to Kapha and Pitta (do not cause aggravation) and ideal in diseases of vata origin.

Yusa of Patola, Nimba etc

मृद्वीकादाडिमैर्युक्तः स चाप्युक्तोऽनिलार्दिते ||३६९||
रोचनो दीपनो हृद्यो लघुपाक्युपदिश्यते |
पटोलनिम्बयूषौ तु कफमेदोविशोषिणौ ||३७०||

पित्तघ्नौ दीपनौ हृद्यौ कृमिकुष्ठज्वरापहौ |३७१|

In the same yusa if juice or paste of mrdvika (raisins) and juice of dadima (pomegranate) are added, it becomes extremely beneficial to mitigate the diseases of vata origin. It enhances taste, kindles digestion power, is good for the heart and is light post digestion.
Yusa (soap) of patola and Nimba, cause dryness (decrease) of Kapha and Medas (fat), mitigates pitta, kindles digestion, good for heart, cures diseases of worms, leprosy (and other skin disease) and fever.

Mulaka Yusa

श्वासकासप्रतिश्यायप्रसेकारोचकज्वरान् ||३७१||
हन्ति मूलकयूषस्तु कफमेदोगलग्रहान् |
MulakaYusa – (soup of Raddish) – cures dyspnoea, cough, running in the nose (common cold), excess salivation, anorexia, fevers and pain in the throat and mitigates Kapha and medas (fat).

Kulattha Yusa

कुलत्थयूषोऽनिलहा श्वासपीनसनाशनः ||३७२||
तूणीप्रतूणीकासाश्मगुल्ममेदःकफावहः |३७३|
Kulattha Yusa (soup of horse gram) mitigates Vata, cures dysponea, rhinitis, pains of the urinary bladder, cough, urinary calculus, abdominal tumor, obesity and diseases of kapha origin.

Dadima Amalaka Yusa

दाडिमामलकैर्यूषो हृद्यः संशमनो लघुः ||३७३||
प्राणाग्निजननो मूर्च्छामेदोघ्नो वातपित्तजित् |३७४|
Dadima and Amalaka Yusa
– is good for the heart, palliative, light (easily digestible), restores life and digestive power, cure fainting, obesity and mitigates vata and Pitta.

Mudga Amalaka Yusa

मुद्गामलकयूषस्तु ग्राही पित्तकफे हितः ||३७४||
Yusa of mudga and Amalaka is constipating and suitable in aggravation of Pitta and Kapha.

Kola Kulattha Yusa

यवकोलकुलत्थानां यूषः कण्ठ्योऽनिलापहः |
सर्वधान्यकृतस्तद्वद्बृंहणः प्राणवर्धनः ||३७५||

Yusa of kola and Kulattha is good for the throat and mitigates Vata. Similarly, is that prepared with all corns is stoutening the body and sustains life.
Read – Horse Gram Uses, Recipes, Dose, Side Effects

Khada and Kambalika

खडकाम्बलिकौ हृद्यौ तथा वातकफे हितौ |३७६|
Khada and Kambilaka are good ffor the heart and beneficial for aggravation of vata and Kapha.

Dadimamla, Dadhyamla, Takramla

बल्यः कफानिलौ हन्ति दाडिमाम्लोऽग्निदीपनः ||३७६||
दध्यम्लः कफकृद्बल्यः स्निग्धो वातहरो गुरुः |
तक्राम्लः पित्तकृत् प्रोक्तो विषरक्तप्रदूषणः ||३७७||

Dadimamla (Sauce with sour dadima) – bestows strength, mitigates Kapha and Vata and kindles digestion.
Dadhyamla (Sauce with sour curds) aggravates kapha bestows strength, is unctuous, mitigates vata and is heavy (hard for digestion).
Takramla (sauce with sour buttermilk) aggravates Pitta and aggravates poison and blood.
Read – Buttermilk Benefits, Side Effects, Usage, Home Remedies

Khada, Khada Yavagu etc

खडाः खडयवाग्वश्च षा(खा)डवाः पानकानि च |
एवमादीनि चान्यानि क्रियन्ते वैद्यवाक्यतः ||३७८||
Khada, Khadyavara, Sadava, Panaka and such others are prepared on the direction of the physician.
Notes: – Khada is processed buttermilk, Khada yavagu, is a mixture of processed buttermilk and thick gruel. Sadava is powdery condiments prepared from a mixture of substances which are prominently sour and sweet in taste, astringent and salt slightly and supplemented by Kola, Kapittha etc, and then powdered.

Akrta Yusa and Krta Yusa

अस्नेहलवणं सर्वमकृतं कटुकैर्विना |
विज्ञेयं लवणस्नेहकटुकैः संयुतं कृतम् ||३७९||
Akrta Yusa (unprocessed soup) is the one which is not added with fats, salt and pungents and Krta Yusa is that added with fats, salt, pungent (processed soup).

Samskrta Rasa, Asamskrta Rasa

अथ गोरसधान्याम्लफलाम्लैरम्लितं च यत् |
यथोत्तरं लघु हितं संस्कृतासंस्कृतं रसम् ||३८०||
Mamsa rasa (meat soup) which is made sour by addition of milk, Dhanyamla or Phalamla is known as Samskrta rasa (processed meat soup) and that without these additions is called Asamskrta rasa (unprocessed meat soup). The latter one is easier for digestion and good for health, than the former.

Kambalika

दधिमस्त्वम्लसिद्धस्तु यूषः काम्बलिकः स्मृतः |३८१|
Kambalika – is Yusa (soup of pulses) prepared from whey of curd and added with sours.

Products of Tila etc

तिलपिण्याकविकृतिः शुष्कशाकं विरूढकम् ||३८१||
सिण्डाकी च गुरूणि स्युः कफपित्तकराणि च |३८२|
Products of Tila, Pinyaka, dried vegetables, germinated grains, and Sindaki are hard for digestion and aggravate Kapha and Pitta.

Vataka

तद्वच्च वटकान्याहुर्विदाहीनि गुरूणि च ||३८२||
Vataka (vada) is also similar in properties, cause heart burn and hard for digestion.

Raga, Sadava

लघवो बृंहणा वृष्या हृद्या रोचनदीपनाः |
तृष्णामूर्च्छाभ्रमच्छर्दिश्रमघ्ना रागषाडवाः ||३८३||
Raga and Sadava – are easily digestible, stoutening, aphrodisiac, good for the heart (or mind), helps taste, kindles digestion, relieves thirst, fainting, giddiness, vomiting and fatigue.

Notes: – Dalhana describes raga (thick sauce) as a mixture of sugar, bida Lavana, saindhava lavana, Vrksamla, juice of Parusaka, Jambuphala and Rajika used as a lituary or syrup.

Rasala, Saguda Dadhi

रसाला बृंहणी बल्या स्निग्धा वृष्या च रोचनी |
स्नेहनं गुडसंयुक्तं हृद्यं दध्यनिलापहम् ||३८४||

Rasala (Fruit Salad) – is stoutening, strengthening, unctuous, and aphrodisiac and helps enhance taste.
Suguda Dadhi (curds added with jaggery) – is unctuous, good for the heart and mitigates Vata.

सक्तवः सर्पिषाऽभ्यक्ताः शीतवारिपरिप्लुताः |
नातिद्रवा नातिसान्द्रा मन्थ इत्युपदिश्यते ||३८५||
मन्थः सद्योबलकरः पिपासाश्रमनाशनः |
साम्लस्नेहगुडो मूत्रकृच्छ्रोदावर्तनाशनः ||३८६||
शर्करेक्षुरसद्राक्षायुक्तः पित्तविकारनुत् |
द्राक्षामधूदकयुतः कफरोगनिबर्हणः ||३८७||
वर्गत्रयेणोपहितो मलदोषानुलोमनः |३८८|
Mantha – is a mixture of flour (of corn) added with ghee and cold water and made neither very thin nor very thick liquid. This bestows strength immediately, relieves thirst and fatigue. When added with sours, fats (oil or ghee) and jaggery, it cures dysuria and upward movement in the abdomen (reverse peristalsis). When mixed with sugar, juice of sugarcane and draksa, it cures diseases of Pitta origin. When added with draksa and madhuka it cures diseases of Kapha; and added with a group of three drugs (mentioned above). It helps downward movements (normal activity) of mala (faeces) and Doshas.
Read – Curd Benefits, Side Effects As Per Ayurveda

Panaka

गौडमम्लमनम्लं वा पानकं गुरु मूत्रलम् ||३८८||
तदेव खण्डमृद्वीकाशर्करासहितं पुनः |
साम्लं सतीक्ष्णं सहिमं पानकं स्यान्निरत्ययम् ||३८९||
मार्द्वीकं तु श्रमहरं मूर्च्छादाहतृषापहम् |
परूषकाणां कोलानां हृद्यं विष्टम्भि पानकम् ||३९०||
द्रव्यसंयोगसंस्कारं ज्ञात्वा मात्रां च सर्वतः |
पानकानां यथायोगं गुरुलाघवमादिशेत् ||३९१||
Panaka – (syrup) prepared with jaggery, either sour or not sour in taste is hard for digestion and diuretic. The same (panaka) prepared with Khanda (sugarcandy), mrdvika and sarkara sugar), amla (sour), Tiksna (marica) and Hima (karpura / camphor) is the best in properties. That prepared from Mrdvika relieves fatigue, fainting, burning sensation and thirst. That prepared from parusaka or Kola is good for the heart, stays long in the stomach without digestion. The quality to be consumed; difficult or easy digestibility of Panaka (syrup) should be determined considering the substances used, nature of their combination and processing while preparing it.

इति कृतान्नवर्गः
Thus ends Krtannavarga- group of prepared foods.

अथ भक्ष्यवर्गः।

VII. Bhaksya varga – group of etables (snacks)

वक्ष्याम्यतः परं भक्ष्यान् रसवीर्यविपाकतः |३९२|
Next, we will describe Bhaksyas – etables / snacks in respects of their taste, potency and taste after digestion.

Bhaksya

भक्ष्याः क्षीरकृता बल्या वृष्या हृद्याः सुगन्धिनः ||३९२||
अदाहिनः पुष्टिकरा दीपनाः पित्तनाशनाः |३९३|
Bhasksya (snacks) – made from milk are strengthening, aphrodisiac, good for heart, have pleasant smell, do not cause heart burn, are nourishing, kindle digestion and mitigate Pitta.

Ghrtapura

तेषां प्राणकरा हृद्या घृतपूराः कफावहाः ||३९३||
वातपित्तहरा वृष्या गुरवो रक्तमांसलाः |३९४|
Ghrtapura
– among these, sustain life (by bestowing strength), is good for the heart (mind), increases kapha, mitigates Vata and Pitta is aphrodisiac, hard for digestion, helps growth of blood and muscles.

Notes: – According to Dalhana – the flour of wheat is made into dough, adding milk, coconut gratings, sugar etc. Small thin discs are prepared from this and then deep fried with more quality of ghee.

Gaudika Bhaksya

बृंहणा गौडिका भक्ष्या गुरवोऽनिलनाशनाः ||३९४||
अदाहिनः पित्तहराः शुक्रलाः कफवर्धनाः |३९५|
Gaudika Bhaksya – eatables prepared with jaggery are stoutening, hard for digestion, mitigate Vata, do not cause heart burn, mitigate pitta, are aphrodisiac and increase Kapha. It is of many kinds.

मधुशीर्षकसंयावाः पूपा ये ते विशेषतः ||३९५||
गुरवो बृंहणाश्चैव मोदकास्तु सुदुर्जराः |३९६|
Madhusirsaka, Samyava, Pupa and modaka – these especially are hard for digestion and stoutening. Modaka is very hard for digestion.

Notes: – Dalhana describes these as follows: – Madhusirsaka or madhumastaka is dough made into a thin disc, lump of sugar, ghee etc. are kept inside enveloped all around and cooked (in steam). Samyava is dough added with milk, sugar etc. kneaded well made into thin discs, cooked (deep fried) in ghee, then powder of sugar candy, ela, marica and Ardraka are sprinkled over it. Pupa (or Apupa) is a sweet pancake. Modaka is Laddu – a ball of sweets.

Sattaka

रोचनो दीपनः स्वर्यः पित्तघ्नः पवनापहः ||३९६||
गुरुर्मृष्टतरमश्चैव सट्टकः प्राणवर्धनः |३९७|
Sattaka
– is tasty, kindles digestion, good for voice, mitigates Pitta and Vata, hard for digestion, very sweet and sustains life by bestowing strength.

Notes: – dalhana describes this preparation as follows- powder of Lavanga, Vyosa (trikatu), Khanda (sugarcandy) are added to curds, churned well and filtered, to liquid, seeds of dadima and powder of Karpura are sprinkled over and consumed. This is called sattaka. It is of many kinds.

Visyanda

हृद्यः सुगन्धिर्मधुरः स्निग्धः कफकरो गुरुः ||३९७||
वातापहस्तृप्तिकरो बल्यो विष्यन्द उच्यते |३९८|
Visyanda – is good for the heart, has pleasant odour, sweet in taste, is unctuous, increases kapha, hard for digestion, and mitigates Vata, bestows contentment and strength.

Notes: – Dalhana describes Visyanda as follows- raw flour of wheat added with ghee, milk and jaggery- all stirred well to form a liquid (drink) neither too thin nor too solid.

बृंहणा वातपित्तघ्ना भक्ष्या बल्यास्तु सामिताः ||३९८||
हृद्याः पथ्यतमास्तेषां लघवः फेनकादयः |३९९|
Eatables prepared from dough of wheat flour are stoutening, mitigates vata and pitta and bestows strength, good for the heart and best suited for health. Among these phenaka etc, are easily digestible.

Notes: – Dalhana describes Phenaka as follows- flour of wheat which is very white, is added with little quantity of sugar, made into slender thin sticks (and dried in shade); next it is deep fried in ghee till it becomes hard cooked. (These are put into boiled milk and then consumed along with milk).

मुद्गादिवेसवाराणां पूर्णा विष्टम्भिनो मताः ||३९९||
वेसवारैः सपिशितैः सम्पूर्णा गुरुबृंहणाः |४००|
Discs of wheat dough filled with paste of mudga etc, and cooked, these when consumed, stay in the stomach for a long time without getting digested. Discs filled with meat, cooked well and consumed are hard for digestion and stouten the body.

Palala

पाललाः श्लेष्मजननाः, शष्कुल्यः कफपित्तलाः ||४००||
Palala produces more of Kapha and Saskuli causing an increase of Kapha and Pitta.

Notes: – Oil cake (removed of oil) or paste of Tila (sesame) is known as Palala, eatables prepared from this are palala. Saskuli is made from flour of rice made as dough, then pressed through a small hole to come out like cylindrical / thread-like and arranged in circular discs. These are deep fried in oil and consumed.

Paistika

वीर्योष्णाः पैष्टिका भक्ष्याः कफपित्तप्रकोपणाः |
विदाहिनो नातिबला गुरवश्च विशेषतः ||४०१||
Paistika- eatables prepared from Pista (paste of corn flour) are hot in potency, aggravate Kapha and Pitta, cause heartburn, do not bestow strength greatly and are hard for digestion especially.

Vaidala

वैदला लघवो भक्ष्याः कषायाः सृष्टमारुताः |
विष्टम्भिनः पित्तसमाः श्लेष्मघ्ना भिन्नवर्चसः ||४०२||
बल्या वृष्यास्तु गुरवो विज्ञेया माषसाधिताः |४०३|
Vaidala- eatables prepared from pulses (paste of pulses) are easy for digestion, astringent in taste, create more of flatus, stay long in the stomach without digestion; do not interfere with Pitta, mitigates Kapha and causes purgation. Those prepared from Masa (black gram) should be understood as strengthening, aphrodisiac and hard for digestion.

Kurcika

कूर्चिकाविकृता भक्ष्या गुरवो नातिपित्तलाः ||४०३||
 Eatables made from Kurcika (cheese) are hard for digestion and do not aggravate pitta greatly.

Virudha krta bhaksya

विरूढककृता भक्ष्या गुरवोऽनिलपित्तलाः |
विदाहोत्क्लेशजनना रूक्षा दृष्टिप्रदूषणाः ||४०४||
Eatables prepared from sprouted grains (pulses) are hard for digestion, increase vata and pitta, create burning sensation and nausea during digestion, cause dryness and defects of vision.

Ghrta pacita bhaksya

हृद्याः सुगन्धिनो भक्ष्या लघवो घृतपाचिताः |
वातपित्तहरा बल्या वर्णदृष्टिप्रसादनाः ||४०५||
विदाहिनस्तैलकृता गुरवः कटुपाकिनः |
उष्णा मारुतदृष्टिघ्नाः पित्तलास्त्वक्प्रदूषणाः ||४०६||
Eatables cooked in ghee are good for the heart, have pleasant odour and are easily digestible, mitigate vata and pitta, bestow strength, good for enhancing body colour and vision (visual perception). Eatables cooked in oil cause burning sensation, hard for digestion, pungent after digestion, hot in potency, mitigate vata, diminish vision, aggravate pitta and vitiate the skin.

Phaladi krta bhaksya

फलमांसेक्षुविकृतितिलमाषोपसंस्कृताः |
भक्ष्या बल्याश्च गुरवो बृंहणा हृदयप्रियाः ||४०७||
Eatables prepared from fruits, meat, products of sugarcane, tila and Masa are strengthened; hard for digestion, stoutenning and pleasing to the heart / mind.

Kapalangara pakva bhaksya

कपालाङ्गारपक्वास्तु लघवो वातकोपनाः |
सुपक्वास्तनवश्चैव भूयिष्ठं लघवो मताः ||४०८||
सकिलाटादयो भक्ष्या गुरवः कफवर्धनाः |४०९|

Eatables cooked on a mud pan and burning coal are easy for digestion and aggravate Vata. These which are well cooked and are especially thin are said to be easily digestible. Eatables containing cheese are hard for digestion and cause aggravation of kapha.

Kulmasa

कुल्माषा वातला रूक्षा गुरवो भिन्नवर्चसः ||४०९||
Kulmasa increases vata, causes dryness inside, is hard for digestion and produces purgations.

Notes: – According to Dalhana, Kulmasa is flour of yava (barley), soaked in hot water, cooked slightly and made into thick sticks; others say Kulmasa is pulses boiled well.

Vatya, Dhana and Ulumba

उदावर्तहरो वाट्यः कासपीनसमेहनुत् |
धानोलुम्बास्तु लघवः कफमेदोविशोषणाः ||४१०||

Vatya (cake made from flour of barley or wheat and fried in oil)- cure reverse peristalisis, cough, rhinitis and diabetes.
Dhana and Ulumba are easily digestible and cause diminution of kapha and medas (fat).

 Notes: – Dhana is puffed corn (pop corn) and Ulumba is unripe corn roasted over burning coal.
Read – Ayurvedic Healthy Daily Routine Charak Samhita Sutrasthana – Chapter 5

Saktu

शक्तवो बृंहणा वृष्यास्तृष्णापित्तकफापहाः |
पीताः सद्योबलकरा भेदिनः पवनापहाः ||४११||
गुर्वी पिण्डी खराऽत्यर्थं लघ्वी सैव विपर्ययात् |
शक्तूनामाशु जीर्येत मृदुत्वादवलेहिका ||४१२||
Saktu (flour of cereals like bareley, wheat, rice etc. cooked in water) is stoutening, aphrodisiac, cures thirst and mitigates pitta and Kapha. When it is consumed in liquid form it bestows strength immediately, breaks the faeces (causes loosening of stools) and mitigates vata.  Consumed in the form of hard balls, it is hard for digestion whereas it is easily digestible otherwise (balls being soft). Avalehika (a form of confection added with sugar, ghee, salt etc) gets digested quickly because of its softness.

Laja

लाजाश्छर्द्यतिसारघ्ना दीपनाः कफनाशनाः |
बल्याः कषायमधुरा लघवस्तृण्मलापहाः ||४१३||
तृट्छर्दिदाहघर्मार्तिनुदस्तत्सक्तवो मताः |

रक्तपित्तहराश्चैव दाहज्वरविनाशनाः ||४१४||

Laja (fried paddy) – cures vomiting, diarrhea, kindles digestion, mitigates Kapha, bestows strength, astringent-sweet in taste, easily digestible and relieves thirst and mitigates the Doshas (or helps elimination of wastes). Laja Sattu (flour) cures thirst, vomiting, burning sensation, heat exhaustion, bleeding disorders, burning sensation and fever.

Prthuka

पृथुका गुरवः स्निग्धा बृंहणाः कफवर्धनाः |
बल्याः सक्षीरभावात्तु वातघ्ना भिन्नवर्चसः ||४१५||
Prthuka (paddy parboiled and flattened) is hard for digestion, unctuous, stoutening, increasing kapha, strengthening, when combined with milk it mitigates Vata and produces purgation.

Ama tandula, Nava Tandula

सन्धानकृत्पिष्टमामं तण्डुलं कृमिमेहनुत् |
सुदुर्जरः स्वादुरसो बृंहणस्तण्डुलो नवः ||४१६||

सन्धानकृन्मेहहरः पुराणस्तण्डुलः स्मृतः |४१७|
Paste of raw rice unites fractures, eliminates worms and cures diabetes.
New rice is difficult for digestion, sweet in taste, stoutening, unites fractures, cures diabetes.

द्रव्यसंयोगसंस्कारविकारान् समवेक्ष्य च ||४१७||
यथाकारणमासाद्य भोक्तॄणां छन्दतोऽपि वा |
अनेकद्रव्ययोनित्वाच्छास्त्रतस्तान् विनिर्दिशेत् ||४१८||
The properties of different eatables have to be determined taking into consideration the material from which it is prepared, additions, modes of processing, purpose for which it is meant, liking of the consumer, and description in the texts, since these are prepared from many substances.

इति भक्ष्यवर्गः।
Thus ends Bhaksyasvarga- group of eatables (snacks)-

अतः सर्वानुपानान्युपदेक्ष्यामः |

VIII. Anupana varga

Group of after drinks/ postprandial drinks

अम्लेन केचिद्विहता मनुष्या माधुर्ययोगे प्रणयीभवन्ति |
तथाम्लयोगे मधुरेण तृप्तास्तेषां यथेष्टं प्रवदन्ति पथ्यम् ||४१९||

Now we will describe the Anupana for all kinds of foods: –

Persons who are habituated to foods of sour taste find comfort with the use of drinks of sweet taste. Similarly, those habituated to sweet foods taste become comfortable with the use of drinks of sour taste.
Notes: – Anupana is the liquid consumed immediately after meals or other solid foods. In the context of administration of medicinal recipes, it stands for the vehicles (material with which the medicine is mixed).

शीतोष्णतोयासवमद्ययूषफलाम्लधान्याम्लपयोरसानाम् |
यस्यानुपानं तु हितं भवेद्यत्तस्मै प्रदेयं त्विह मात्रया तत् ||४२०||
व्याधिं च कालं च विभाव्य धीरैर्द्रव्याणि भोज्यानि च तानि तानि |
सर्वानुपानेषु वरं वदन्ति मैध्यं यदम्भः शुचिभाजनस्थम् ||४२१||
लोकस्य जन्मप्रभृति प्रशस्तं तोयात्मकाः सर्वरसाश्च दृष्टाः |
सङ्क्षेप एषोऽभिहितोऽनुपानेष्वतः परं विस्तरतोऽभिधास्ये ||४२२||

Cold water, warm water, Asava (fermented infusion), wine, soup of pulses, juices of sour fruits, fermented gruel of corns, milk and meat juice- whichever of these that is comfortable to the person, should be given to him in appropriate quantity.
The diseases, time (seasons), the substance with which the food is prepared and time of meals should be carefully considered (for selecting the after drink). Among all kinds of after drinks, pure rain water collected in a clean vessel, is spoken of as the best. Water of all the tastes is found to be habituated to all living beings even from their birth itself. That is the principle in brief of using after drinks; this will be elaborated further on
Read – Anupan – Co-Drinks, After Drinks, Adjuvants For Ayurveda Products

Vividhaanupana – Different after drinks

उष्णोदकानुपानं तु स्नेहानामथ शस्यते |
ऋते भल्लातकस्नेहात् स्नेहात्तौवरकात्तथा ||४२३||
अनुपानं वदन्त्येके तैले यूषाम्लकाञ्जिकम् |
Usnodaka anupana – hot / warm water as after drink is ideal for oleation therapy (drinking fats), except in oils of Bhallataka and Tuvaraka. Some others opine that Yusa (soup of pulses) and amla Kanjika (sour gruel) should be used as after-drinks after drinking fats.

शीतोदकं माक्षिकस्य पिष्टान्नस्य च सर्वशः ||४२४||
दधिपायसमद्यार्तिविषजुष्टे तथैव च |
केचित् पिष्टमयस्याहुरनुपानं सुखोदकम् ||४२५||
पयो मांसरसो वाऽपि शालिमुद्गादिभोजिनाम् |
युद्धाध्वातपसन्तापविषमद्यरुजासु च ||४२६||
माषादेरनुपानं तु धान्याम्लं दधिमस्तु वा |
मद्यं मद्योचितानां तु सर्वमांसेषु पूजितम् ||४२७||
अमद्यपानामुदकं फलाम्लं वा प्रशस्यते |
क्षीरं घर्माध्वभाष्यस्त्रीक्लान्तानाममृतोपमम् ||४२८||
सुरा कृशानां स्थूलानामनुपानं मधूदकम् |
निरामयानां चित्रं तु भुक्तमध्ये प्रकीर्तितम् ||४२९||
स्निग्धोष्णं मारुते पथ्यं, कफे रूक्षोष्णमिष्यते |
अनुपानं हितं चापि पित्ते मधुरशीतलम् ||४३०||
हितं शोणितपित्तिभ्यः क्षीरमिक्षुरसस्तथा |
अर्कशेलुशिरीषाणामासवास्तु विषार्तिषु ||४३१||
Shitodaka
– Cold water- as after drink is ideal always after consuming honey and food prepared from flour of grains, so also after consuming curd, Payasa (milk pudding), wine and for those suffering from poisons. Sukhodaka – Some others say comfortable warm water is ideal after consuming foods prepared from flour.
Paya and Mamsa rasa – Paya (milk) and Mamsa rasa (Meat soap) as after- drink are ideal for those who partake food prepared from rice, green gram etc (pulses)-also for those who are fatigued by war, long distance walk, exposure to sun, heat exhaustion, effect of poison and wine (alcoholism).

Dhanyamla, Dadhi Mastu, Madya, Udaka, Phalamla – Dhanyamala (fermented gruel of corns) or whey of curds is the best after – drink for foods of Masa etc. Madya (wine) is best for persons habituated to wine and all kinds of meats; for those who are not accustomed to wine, water or juice of sour fruits are best.
Ksira (milk) is like nector for persons exhausted from sunlight, long walks, spreaking and women (sexual activity).
Sura (beer) is ideal for the emaciated and Madhudaka (honey water) for the corpulent (obese).

For healthy persons, different kinds of liquids consumed in the middle of the meal is said to be ideal. That which is unctuous and warm is suitable in vata aggravation. That which is dry and hot is suitable for kapha aggravation. The after-drink which is sweet and cold is best in pitta aggravation. For those suffering from bleeding diseases (of diseases caused by blood) and pitta, milk and sugarcane juice as after-drinks are beneficial. For those suffering from poison, Asava (fermented infusion) prepared from Arka, Selu and Sirisa is beneficial.
Read – Benefits Of Liquid Foods – Ashtang Hriday Sutrasthan 5th Chapter

Anupana suitable to each group

अतःपरं तु वर्गाणामनुपानं पृथक्पृथक॥
प्रवक्ष्याम्यनुपूर्वेण सर्वेषामेव मे श्रृणु॥४३२॥

Further, we will describe the after- drinks suitable to each group separately, in their sequential order, listen to me (attentively).

तत्र पूर्वशस्यजातानां बदराम्लं, वैदलानां धान्याम्लं, जङ्घलानां धन्वजानां च पिप्पल्यासवः , वोष्किराणां कोलबदरासवः प्रतुदानांक्षीरवृक्षासवः, गुहाशयाणां खर्जूरनालिकेरासवः, प्रसहानामश्वगन्धासवः,  पर्णमृगाणां कृष्णगन्धासवः, बिलेशयानां फलासवः, एकशफनां त्रिफलासवः, अनेकशफानां खदिरासवः, कूलचराणां श्रृङ्गाटककशेरुकासवः , कोशवासिनां पादिनां च स एव, प्लवानामिक्षुरसासवः, नादेयानां मत्स्यानां मृणालासवः, सामुद्राणां मातुलुङ्गासवः, अम्लानांफलानां  पद्मोत्पलकन्दासवः कषायाणां दाडिमवेत्रासवः, मधुराणां त्रिकटुकयुक्तः खण्डासवः तालफादीनां धान्याम्लं, कटुकानां दूर्वानलवेत्रासवः; पिप्पल्यादीनां श्वदंष्ट्रावसुकासवः, कूष्माण्डादीनां दार्वीकरीरासवः, चुच्चुप्रभृतीनां लोध्रासवः, जीवन्त्यादीनां त्रिफलासवः, कुसुम्भशाकस्य स एव, मण्डूकपर्ण्यादीनां महापञ्चमूलासवः, तालमस्तकादीनामम्लफलासवः, सैन्धवादीनांसुरासव आरनालं च, तोयं च सर्वत्रेति ॥४३३॥

Badaramla (fermented liquid prepared from badara fruit) is the ideal after drink for foods prepared from articles of the earlier groups (Suka, Sami and Kudhanya).
Dhanyamla (fermented liquid prepared from corn) is best for foods prepared from Pulses.
Pippalyasava is best for food prepared from meat of swift running animals and those living in marshy regions.

Kola – Badarasava– for meat of Viskira group of animals; Ksiravrksava for meat of Pratuda group of animals; Kharjurasava or Narikelasava for meat  of prasaha group; Krsnagandhasava (Sobhanjanaka) for meat of parnamrgas; phalasava for meat of bilesaya group; triphalasava  for meat of Ekasapha; Khadirasava for meat of anekasapha group ; Srngataka and Keserukasava for meat of Kulacara group, the same for meat of Kosastha and Padina group; Iksurasasava for meat of plava group; mrnalasava for riverine fish and Matulungasava for marine fish.

Asava prepared from Padma and Utpala Kanda is best for foods of sour fruits. Asava of Dadima and Vetra for foods of astringent taste; Khandasava added with Trikatu for foods of sweet fruits; Dhanyamla for Tala Phala etc; Asava of Durva; Anala (Citraka) and Vetra for fruits of pungent tastes; Asava of Svadamstra and Vasuka for foods of pippali etc are ideal.

Asava of Darvi and Karika is ideal for Kusmanda etc (vegetables): Lodhrasava for cuccu etc; Triphalasava for Jivanti etc, the same for Kusumbha saka; Mahapancamulasava for Mandukaparni etc; Asava of Amla (sour fruits) for Tala Mastaka etc, Surasava and aranala of Saindhava etc.

Toya (water) is best suited for all kinds of foods.

 Another verse here: –

भवन्ति चात्र-
सर्वेषामनुपानानां माहेन्द्रं तोयमुत्तमम् |४३४|
सात्म्यं वा यस्य यत्तोयं तत्तस्मै हितमुच्यते ||४३४||

उष्णं वाते कफे तोयं पित्ते रक्ते च शीतलम् |४३५|

Rain water is the best among all after- drinks or any other kind of water which is habituated to any person, that water itself is beneficial to him. Hot water is ideal in aggravation of Vata and kapha and cold water in aggravation of Pitta and Rakta.
Read – Benefits And Usage of Water As per Ayurveda: Complete Compilation

Anupana Guna – Effects of after drink

दोषवद्गुरु वा भुक्तमतिमात्रमथापि वा ||४३५||
यथोक्तेनानुपानेन सुखमन्नं प्रजीर्यति |
रोचनं बृंहणं वृष्यं दोषसङ्घातभेदनम् ||४३६||
तर्पणं मार्दवकरं श्रमक्लमहरं सुखम् |
दीपनं दोषशमनं पिपासाच्छेदनं परम् ||४३७||
बल्यं वर्णकरं सम्यगनुपानं सदोच्यते |४३८|
Foods which cause aggravation of the doshas, which are hard for digestion and foods consumed in more quantity get digested easily by the after- drinks mentioned so far. It helps taste, stoutens the body, is aphrodisiac, splitis the lumps of the doshas, is nourishing, causes softening (of the tissues), relieves fatigue and exhaustion, confers happiness, kindles digestion, mitigates the doshas, best for relieving thirst, bestows strength and color, these are the effect / benefits of suitable after-drinks, used appropriately.

Effects of after-drinks consumed before, during and after meals

तदादौ कर्शयेत्पीतं स्थापयेन्मध्यसेवितम् ||४३८||
पश्चात्पीतं बृंहयति तस्माद्वीक्ष्य प्रयोजयेत् |४३९|
After-drinks if consumed before the meals will cause emaciation of the body, if consumed in the middle it maintains the body (in its usual size) and if consumed after the meals (at the end of the meal) it produces stoutness; hence it should be used considering the desirability (of either leanness or stoutness.

Reasons for consuming after-drinks, contraindications

स्थिरतां गतमल्किन्नमन्नमद्रवपायिनाम् ||४३९||
भवत्याबाधजननमनुपानमतः पिबेत् |४४०|
न पिबेच्छ्वासकासार्तो रोगे चाप्यूर्ध्वजत्रुगे ||४४०||

क्षतोरस्कः प्रसेकी च यस्य चोपहतः स्वरः |४४१|
पीत्वाऽध्वभाष्याध्ययनगेयस्वप्नान्न शीलयेत् ||४४१||

प्रदूष्यामाशयं तद्धि तस्य कण्ठोरसि स्थितम् |
स्यन्दाग्निसादच्छर्द्यादीनामयाञ्जनयेद्बहून् ||४४२||
When a person does not consume the after-drinks, the ingested food stays for a long time in the stomach without getting moistened and gives rise to many diseases. Hence after-drinks should be consumed. Persons suffering from dysponea, cough, diseases of parts above the shoulders, tear in the chest (lungs), excess of salivation and loss of voice should not consume after-drinks. After consuming after-drinks, the    person should not indulge in long walks, speaking, study, singing or sleeping; these vitiate the Doshas residing in the stomach, throat and chest and give rise to nasal catarrh, weakness of digestive power, vomiting and chest and other diseases.

गुरुलाघवचिन्तेयं स्वभावं नातिवर्तते |
तथा संस्कारमात्रान्नकालांश्चाप्युत्तरोत्तरम् ||४४३||
 Nature of the food material, its processing, quantity, consumed and time of consuming do not transgress the easy or difficult digestibility of the food material (in other words, exert influence invariably on its digestibility) each one being powerful in the succeeding order.

मन्दकर्मानलारोग्याः सुकुमाराः सुखोचिताः |
जन्तवो ये तु तेषां हि चिन्तेयं परिकीर्त्यते ||४४४||
बलिनः खरभक्ष्या ये ये च दीप्ताग्नयो नराः |

कर्मनित्याश्च ये तेषां नावश्यं परिकीर्त्यते ||४४५||
 Consuming the food on these lines (easy or difficult for digestion) is only for persons who have poor physical activities, poor digestive power, poor health, who are of tender physique and who lead a life of comfort. It need not be considered for persons who are strong, who eat hard foods habitually, who have keen digestive power and who indulge   in physical activities daily.

इत्यनुपानवर्गः
Thus ends Anupanavarga- a group of after- drinks.
Read – Eating Etiquette: Ayurvedic Healthy Eating Rules

Aharavidhi – Regimen of food

अथाहारविधिं वत्स! विस्तरेणाखिलं शृणु |४४६|
Dear son, listen now, to the details of regimen of food: –

Mahanasa- Kitchen

आप्तास्थितमसङ्कीर्णं शुचि कार्यं महानसम् ||४४६||
तत्राप्तैर्गुणसम्पन्नं भक्ष्यमन्नं सुसंस्कृतम् |

शुचौ देशे सुसङ्गुप्तं समुपस्थापयेद्भिषक् ||४४७||
विषघ्नैरगदैः स्पृष्टं प्रोक्षितं व्यजनोदकैः |

सिद्धैर्मन्त्रैर्हतविषं सिद्धमन्नं निवेदयेत् ||४४८||

The kitchen should be managed by persons of integrity. It should not be small in size, and kept clean. Food should be prepared by faithful persons; well cooked and processed properly, and kept in a clean and concealed place (in the kitchen) by the physician. Such prepared food, purified with anti-poisionous drugs, sprinkled with water from a fan and detoxified by holy hymns, should be offered (to the king).

Bhojana Patra – Utensils of food

वक्ष्याम्यतः परं कृत्स्नामाहारस्योपकल्पनाम् |
घृतं कार्ष्णायसे देयं, पेया देया तु राजते ||४४९||
फलानि सर्वभक्ष्यांश्च प्रदद्याद्वै दलेषु तु |
परिशुष्कप्रदिग्धानि सौवर्णेषु प्रकल्पयेत् ||४५०||
प्रद्रवाणि रसांश्चैवं राजतेषूपहारयेत् |
कट्वराणि खडांश्चैव सर्वाञ्छैलेषु दापयेत् ||४५१||
दद्यात्ताम्रमये पात्रे सुशीतं सुशृतं पयः |
पानीयं, पानकं मद्यं मृन्मयेषु प्रदापयेत् ||४५२||
काचस्फटिकपात्रेषु शीतलेषु शुभेषु च |
दद्याद्वैदूर्यचित्रेषु रागषाडवसट्टकान् ||४५३||
पुरस्ताद्विमले पात्रे सुविस्तीर्णे मनोरमे |
सूदः सूपौदनं दद्यात् प्रदेहांश्च सुसंस्कृतान् ||४५४||
फलानि सर्वभक्ष्यांश्च परिशुष्काणि यानि च |
तानि दक्षिणपार्श्वे तु भुञ्जानस्योपकल्पयेत् ||४५५||
प्रद्रवाणि रसांश्चैव पानीयं पानकं पयः |
खडान् यूषांश्च पेयांश्च सव्ये पार्श्वे प्रदापयेत् ||४५६||
सर्वान् गुडविकारांश्च रागषाडवसट्टकान् |
पुरस्तात् स्थापयेत् प्राज्ञो द्वयोरपि च मध्यतः ||४५७||
Now we will describe in detail the method of arrangements of food.

Ghee should be kept in iron vessels, drinks in silver vessels, fruits and all eatables (snacks) be kept in vessels made of leaves. Parisuska (cooked meat) and Pradigdha (cooked meat soaked in milk) should be kept in vessels of silver; sours (sauces) cooked buttermilk and all such others (which are sour) should be kept in vessels made of stone. Water well boiled and the cooled should be kept in vessels of copper; syrups and wine be kept in vessels made of mud, glass or rock crystal (stone) are cold and beautiful; Raga, Sadava and Sattaka should be kept in vessels of gems and precious stones.

The cook should serve soup, boiled rice and linctus from the front (of the dinner). Dry fruits and all snacks should be served from the right side of the diner. Liquids, meat soups, drinking water, syrups, cooked buttermilk, soup of grains and gruels etc should be served from his left side. All preparations made from jaggery, Raga, Sadava should be kept in front or in the middle of the two sides.
Read – Qualities Of Water, Drinks and Foods Stored In Different Vessels

Bhojana Sthana (Place of dining)

एवं विज्ञाय मतिमान् भोजनस्योपकल्पनाम् |
भोक्तारं विजने रम्ये निःसम्पाते शुभे शुचौ ||४५८||
सुगन्धपुष्परचिते समे देशे च भोजयेत् |४५९|

The intelligent person, knowing the arrangements of foods in the above manner; make the person (king) to dine, seated in a place devoid of people, beautiful, free from troubles (such as dust, smoke, sunlight, rain, loud sound etc) which is auspicious, clean, adorned with sweet smelling flowers and which is even.

Aharaguna – Quantity of food

विशिष्टमिष्टसंस्कारैः पथ्यैरिष्टै रसादिभिः ||४५९||
मनोज्ञं शुचि नात्युष्णं प्रत्यग्रमशनं हितम् |४६०|
 Food should be special, specially processed, good for health, endowed with desired taste etc (smell, touch), pleasing to the mind, clean, not very hot, and freshy prepared.

Aharopacara – Method of Partaking

पूर्वं मधुरमश्नीयान्मध्येऽम्ललवणौ रसौ ||४६०||
पश्चाच्छेषान् रसान् वैद्यो भोजनेष्ववचारयेत् |
आदौ फलानि भुञ्जीत दाडिमादीनि बुद्धिमान् ||४६१||
ततः पेयांस्ततो भोज्यान् भक्ष्यांश्चित्रांस्ततः परम् |
घनं पूर्वं समश्नीयात्, केचिदाहुर्विपर्ययम् ||४६२||
आदावन्ते च मध्ये च भोजनस्य तु शस्यते |
निरत्ययं दोषहरं फलेष्वामलकं नृणाम् ||४६३||
मृणालबिसशालूककन्देक्षुप्रभृतीनि च |
पूर्वं योज्यानि भिषजा न तु भुक्ते कदाचन ||४६४||

 The physician should arrange the serving of food in such a way that the diner consumes foods of sweet taste in the beginning, of sour and salty (pungent and astringent) at the end. The wise person should eat fruits, like Dadima etc at the beginning, next Peya (gruels, liquid food) and after that, solids, and different eatbles (snacks). Solid foods which are hard should be eaten earlier. Some authorities say that it should be used either in the beginning, middle or end of the meal; it does not create any danger but mitigates the Doshas. Mrnala, Bisa, Saluka, Kanda, Iksu and such others should be served before a meal and never after it.

Bhoktr Laksana – Condition of the diner

सुखमुच्चैः समासीनः समदेहोऽन्नतत्परः |
काले सात्म्यं लघु स्निग्धमुष्णं क्षिप्रं द्रवोत्तरम् ||४६५||
बुभुक्षितोऽन्नमश्नीयान्मात्रावद्विदितागमः |४६६|

The dinner should be sitting comfortably, slightly high, on an even surface / seating, body parts kept normally; be intent on food, take at the proper time; food being the accustomed, easily digestible, unctuous, warm, with more of liquids, eat quickly, after getting hunger, deciding the quantity with the knowledge obtained from the scriptures (texts of Ayurveda).

Bhojana kala – Time of meals

काले प्रीणयते भुक्तं सात्म्यमन्नं न बाधते ||४६६||
लघु शीघ्रं व्रजेत् पाकं स्निग्धोष्णं बलवह्निदम् |
क्षिप्रं भुक्तं समं पाकं यात्यदोषं द्रवोत्तरम् ||४६७||
सुखं जीर्यति मात्रावद्धातुसाम्यं करोति च |४६८|
Food taken at the proper time bestows satisfaction, accustomed food does not give troubles to the body, light foods get digested quickly; unctuous and warm foods bestow strength to the body and digestive fire, food taken quickly gets digested properly, food with more of liquids does not aggravates the Doshas, food of proper quantity gets digested comfortably and bestows normalcy of the Dhatus (tissues).

अतीवायतयामास्तु क्षपा येष्वृतुषु स्मृताः ||४६८||
तेषु तत्प्रत्यनीकाढ्यं भुञ्जीत प्रातरेव तु |
येषु चापि भवेयुश्च दिवसा भृशमायताः ||४६९||
तेषु तत्कालविहितमपराह्णे प्रशस्यते |
रजन्यो दिवसाश्चैव येषु चापि समाः स्मृताः ||४७०||
कृत्वा सममहोरात्रं तेषु भुञ्जीत भोजनम् |४७१|

In seasons during which the nights are very long (hemanta and Sisira – dewy and winter respectively) persons should partake food in the morning itself, such food being predominant in qualities opposite of the qualities of the season. In seasons in which the days are very long (Grisma and Pravrt – summer and early rainy seasons respectively), food suitable to the season should be part taken in afternoon. In seasons in which both day and night are equal (Sarad and Vasanta – autumn and spring season respectively) food should be partaken at the middle, during the day and night equally.

नाप्राप्तातीतकालं वा हीनाधिकमथापि वा ||४७१||
अप्राप्तकालं भुञ्जानः शरीरे ह्यलघौ नरः |
तांस्तान् व्याधीनवाप्नोति मरणं वा नियच्छति ||४७२||
अतीतकालं भुञ्जानो वायुनोपहतेऽनले |
कृच्छ्राद्विपच्यते भुक्तं द्वितीयं च न काङ्क्षति ||४७३||

Food should not be partaken either before the usual time or after the lapse of the usual time; neither in inadequate quantity nor in excess quantity. The person who eats before the usual time becomes stout and hence becomes a victim of many diseases or even of death. The digestive fire of the person who eats after the lapse of the usual time gets affected by Vata, the food gets digested with difficulty and the person does not desire to take the second meal.

Ahara Matra – Quantity of food

हीनमात्रमसन्तोषं करोति च बलक्षयम् |
आलस्यगौरवाटोपसादांश्च कुरुतेऽधिकम् ||४७४||
Less quantity of food produces lack of happiness and loss of strength, while large quantity of food produces lassitude, feeling of heaviness, gurgling noise inside the abdomen and debility.

तस्मात् सुसंस्कृतं युक्त्या दोषैरेतैर्विवर्जितम् |
यथोक्तगुणसम्पन्नमुपसेवेत भोजनम् ||४७५||
विभज्य दोषकालादीन् कालयोरुभयोरपि |४७६|

Hence food which has been well processed, devoid of these defects (above mentioned) and endowed with the required quantity (healthy, at proper time, appropriate quantity etc) considering the condition of the Doshas, times etc, at both times (day and night).
Read – How Much Food To Eat Per Day As Per Ayurveda?

Varjya Ahara – Rejectable food

अचोक्षं दुष्टमुत्सृष्टं पाषाणतृणलोष्टवत् ||४७६||
द्विष्टं व्युषितमस्वादु पूति चान्नं विवर्जयेत् |
चिरसिद्धं स्थिरं शीतमन्नमुष्णीकृतं पुनः ||४७७||
अशान्तमुपदग्धं च तथा स्वादु न लक्ष्यते |४७८|
Food which is inauspicious, contaminated, left overs, containing stones, grass, mud etc; disliked, very moist (slimy), tasteless, bad smelling, prepared long back, hard, cold one warmed again, stale, over cooked / charred and of unpleasant tastes should be rejected.

Bhojana vidhi- Regimen of dining

यद्यत् स्वादुतरं तत्तद्विदध्यादुत्तरोत्तरम् ||४७८||

Items of food should be served in the successive order of increased sweetness (tastiness, pleasantness).

प्रक्षालयेदद्भिरास्यं भुञ्जानस्य मुहुर्मुहुः |
विशुद्धे रसने तस्य रोचतेऽन्नमपूर्ववत् ||४७९||
स्वादुना तस्य रसनं प्रथमेनातितर्पितम् |
न तथा स्वादयेदन्यत्तस्मात् प्रक्षाल्यमन्तरा ||४८०||
The diner should wash (gargle) his mouth with water often. When his tongue is clean, he can relish the food greater than ever before. The tongue, which has been satisfied with the taste of the previously consumed food will not get similarly satisfied (not appreciate) with the food consumed (food of other tastes) later. Hence the tongue (and mouth) should be washed in between meals (of different tastes) often.

Benefits of svadu anna- sweet or tasty food

सौमनस्यं बलं पुष्टिमुत्साहं हर्षणं सुखम् |
स्वादु सञ्जनयत्यन्नमस्वादु च विपर्ययम् ||४८१||

Sweet or tasty foods bestows pleasantness of mind, strength, nourishment, exhilaration (satisfaction) and happiness, whereas that which is not sweet gives rise to the opposite qualities (effects).

What is svadu bhojana?

भुक्त्वाऽपि यत् प्रार्थयते भूयस्तत् स्वादु भोजनम् |
अशितश्चोदकं युक्त्या भुञ्जानश्चान्तरा पिबेत् ||४८२||

A tasty (sweet) meal is that which is greatly desired again even after partaking once.
The diner should drink water in suitable (small) quantities in between (the meals).

Bhojanottara Karma – Postprandial activities

दन्तान्तरगतं चान्नं शोधनेनाहरेच्छनैः |
कुर्यादनिर्हृतं तद्धि मुखस्यानिष्टगन्धताम् ||४८३||
Particles of food remaining in between the teeth should be removed slowly using a toothpick, if not removed these will produce a bad smell in the mouth.

जीर्णेऽन्ने वर्धते वायुर्विदग्धे पित्तमेव तु |
भुक्तमात्रे कफश्चापि, तस्माद्भुक्तेरितं कफम् ||४८४||
धूमेनापोह्य हृद्यैर्वा कषायकटुतिक्तकैः |
पूगकङ्कोलकर्पूरलवङ्गसुमनःफलैः ||४८५||
फलैः कटुकषायैर्वा मुखवैशद्यकारकैः |
ताम्बूलपत्रसहितैः सुगन्धैर्वा विचक्षणः ||४८६||

Vata increases after digestion of the food. Pitta increases during digestion. Kapha increases immediately after consuming food. Hence the Kapha increased due to food should be mitigated by smoke inhalation, chewing things of astringent, pungent and bitter tastes such as Puga, Kankola, Karpura, Lavanga and Sumanah Phala (Jatiphala) or fruits of pungent or astringent tastes which cleanses the mouth, along withTambula Patra (betel leaves) or with things of pleasant odour.

भुक्त्वा राजवदासीत यावदन्नक्लमो गतः |
ततः पादशतं गत्वा वामपार्श्वेन संविशेत् ||४८७||
After partaking in a meal; the person should sit like a king (comfortably) till the fatigue of food is relieved. Afterwards he should walk for a distance of a hundred feet and then lie on a bed on his left side.

शब्दान्रूपान्रसान् गन्धान् स्पर्शांश्च मनसः प्रियान् |
भुक्तवानुपसेवेत तेनान्नं साधु तिष्ठति ||४८८||
शब्दरूपरसा गन्धाः स्पर्शाश्चापि जुगुप्सिताः |
अशुच्यन्नं तथा भुक्तमतिहास्यं च वामयेत् ||४८९||

He who has taken food should indulge in sound, sight, taste, smell and touch which are pleasing to the mind. By these; the food ingested stays (inside the abdomen) without any trouble.
Unpleasant or disliked sounds, sights, tastes, smells, and touch, food which is dirty, too much laughing after meals – these give rise to vomiting.

शयनं चासनं वाऽपि नेच्छेद्वाऽपि द्रवोत्तरम् |
नाग्न्यातपौ न प्लवनं न यानं नापि वाहनम् ||४९०||
न चैकरससेवायां प्रसज्येत कदाचन |
शाकावरान्नभूयिष्ठमम्लं च न समाचरेत् ||४९१||
एकैकशः समस्तान् वा नाध्यश्नीयाद्रसान् सदा |४९२|
The person who has taken food should not desire for sleeping, sitting, drink more of liquids, (exposure to) fire or sunlight, or do swimming, riding in vehicles (travelling) or on animals; should never adhere to foods of any one taste always, not to leafy vegetables, inferior kinds of foods and which are predominantly sour. Foods of any one taste or of all the tastes should be partaken in large quantities always.

प्राग्भुक्ते त्वविविक्तेऽग्नौ द्विरन्नं न समाचरेत् ||४९२||
पूर्वभुक्ते विदग्धेऽन्ने भुञ्जानो हन्ति पावकम् |४९३|
When the digestive fire has not become keen after the morning meal, a second meal should not be partaken. If a second meal is partaken when the earlier food is undergoing digestion, it only destroys the digestive fire.

मात्रागुरुं परिहरेदाहारं द्रव्यतश्च यः ||४९३||
Indulging in foods which are heavy (difficult to digest) either by the nature of the material or by its quantity should be avoided.

पिष्टान्नं नैव भुञ्जीत मात्रया वा बुभुक्षितः |
द्विगुणं च पिबेत्तोयं सुखं सम्यक् प्रजीर्यति |४९४|

Foods prepared from flour should not be partaken or if inevitable should be taken in small quantities only after good hunger and then water should be consumed twice the quantity. By this, such foods get digested easily.

पेयलेह्याद्यभक्ष्याणां गुरु विद्याद्यथोत्तरम् ||४९४||

Peya (drinkable), lehya (lickables), Adya (chewable) and Bhaksyas (eatables, snacks) are to be understood as more heavy (difficult for digestion) in their succeeding order.
Read – Food Poisoning: Ayurvedic Concept, Remedies, Herbs, Diet

Ahara matra- Quantity of food

गुरूणामर्धसौहित्यं लघूनां तृप्तिरिष्यते |
द्रवोत्तरो द्रवश्चापि न मात्रागुरुरिष्यते ||४९५||
द्रवाढ्यमपि शुष्कं तु सम्यगेवोपपद्यते |४९६|
Foods which are difficult for digestion should be consumed to half of one’s capacity of digestion while foods which are easy for digestion should be consumed to one’s satisfaction (contentment). Foods which have more of fluid or fluids itself, there is no difficulty regarding their quantity that is to be consumed. Those foods which are dry, when consumed with more fluids get digested properly.

विशुष्कमन्नमभ्यस्तं न पाकं साधु गच्छति ||४९६||
पिण्डीकृतमसङ्क्लिन्नं विदाहमुपगच्छति |४९७|
Foods which are dry, when consumed (practised) regularly, do not undergo digestion properly. Dry foods which are in the form of hard mass (or bolus) and not moistened will undergo improper digestion (burning sensation in the heart).

स्रोतस्यन्नवहे पित्तं पक्तौ वा यस्य तिष्ठति ||४९७||
विदाहि भुक्तमन्यद्वा तस्याप्यन्नं विदह्यते |४९८|

When pitta or food (undigested) stays for a long time in the alimentary tract or when food causing heartburn is consumed, in such conditions the food does not undergo digestion properly.

शुष्कं विरुद्धं विष्टम्भि वह्निव्यापदमावहेत् ||४९८||
Foods which are dry, incompatible (mutually opposing), and causing constipation will bring about abnormalities of the digestive fire.

Ajirna bheda – Kinds of Indigestion

आमं विदग्धं विष्टब्धं कफपित्तानिलैस्त्रिभिः |
अजीर्णं केचिदिच्छन्ति चतुर्थं रसशेषतः ||४९९||

Amajirna, Vidagdhajirna and Visthabdhajirna are the three kinds of Ajirna (indigestion) caused by Kapha, Pitta and Vata respectively. Some include Rasasesajirna also as the fourth kind.
Read – 120 Remedies For Indigestion Caused By Specific Foods

Ajirna Karana-Causes of indigestion

अत्यम्बुपानाद्विषमाशनाद्वा सन्धारणात् स्वप्नविपर्ययाच्च |
कालेऽपि सात्म्यं लघु चापि भुक्तमन्नं न पाकं भजते नरस्य ||५००||
ईर्ष्याभयक्रोधपरिक्षतेन लुब्धेन शुग्दैन्यनिपीडितेन |
प्रद्वेषयुक्तेन च सेव्यमानमन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति ||५०१||

The person drinking more quantity of water, consuming foods improperly (more, less and untimely), suppressing the urges of the body and improper sleep (etc). The food of such a person, in spite of being conducive / accustomed and having been consumed at the proper time, and also being light (easily digestible), does not undergo digestion properly.

Food consumed by the person afflicted with jealousy, fear, anger, miserliness, grief, helplessness and hatred does not undergo digestion properly.

माधुर्यमन्नं गतमामसञ्ज्ञं विदग्धसञ्ज्ञं गतमम्लभावम् |
किञ्चिद्विपक्वं, भृशतोदशूलं विष्टब्धमानद्धविरुद्धवातम् ||५०२||
उद्गारशुद्धावपि भक्तकाङ्क्षा न जायते हृद्गुरुता च यस्य |
रसावशेषेण तु सप्रसेकं चतुर्थमेतत् प्रवदन्त्यजीर्णम् ||५०३||
Food (ingested) which has attained (more of) sweetness is known as Ama Ajirna. That which has attained (more of) sourness and slightly digested is known as Vidagdha Ajirna. That producing severe pricking pain, colic, long stasis, flatulence and improper movement of vata is known as Visthabdha Ajirna. The person not getting desire to take meals though having pure belching, has heaviness in the region of the heart and more of salivation are said to be symptoms of Rasasesa Ajirna, the fourth kind of indigestion.

Ajirna Upadrava- Complication of indigestion

मूर्च्छा प्रलापो वमथुः प्रसेकः सदनं भ्रमः |
उपद्रवा भवन्त्येते मरणं चाप्यजीर्णतः ||५०४||

Fainting, delirium, vomiting, more salivation, debility, giddiness and even death are Upadravas (complications / secondary diseases) of indigestion.

Ajirna Cikitsa – treatment of indigestion

तत्रामे लङ्घनं कार्यं, विदग्धे वमनं हितम् |
विष्टब्धे स्वेदनं पथ्यं, रसशेषे शयीत च ||५०५||
वामयेदाशु तं तस्मादुष्णेन लवणाम्बुना |
कार्यं वाऽनशनं तावद्यावन्न प्रकृतिं भजेत् ||५०६||
लघुकायमतश्चैनं लङ्घनैः समुपाचरेत् |
यावन्न प्रकृतिस्थः स्याद्दोषतः प्राणतस्तथा ||५०७||
For Amajirna, fasting is to be done. For vidagdhajirna emesis therapy (vomiting) is beneficial. For Visthabdajirna, sudation therapy is beneficial. For Rasasesajira the person should sleep (for sometime without any food).
He (the patient of indigestion) should be made to vomit quickly with warm water and added with salt or made to fast till he becomes normal. After he feels lightness of the body; he should be nourished with thinning therapies (foods and medicines) till he becomes normal in respect of the Doshas and life.
Read – How to Improve Digestion Strength? Remedies, Tips

Definition of Samasana, Visamasana and Adhyasana

हिताहितोपसंयुक्तमन्नं समशनं स्मृतम् |
बहु स्तोकमकाले वा तज्ज्ञेयं विषमाशनम् ||५०८||
अजीर्णे भुज्यते यत्तु तदध्यशनमुच्यते |
त्रयमेतन्निहन्त्याशु बहून्व्याधीन्करोति वा ||५०९||

Samasana – Food which is a mixture of healthy and unhealthy is called Samasana (incompatible food).

Visamasana – Partaking food either more in quantity, or less quantity or at improper times is known as Visamasana (indiscriminate food). Adhyasana – Partaking meals when there is indigestion (of the food consumed earlier) is known as Adhyasana (excess food /overeating). These three either kill the person or produce many diseases in him.

अन्नं विदग्धं हि नरस्य शीघ्रं शीताम्बुना वै परिपाकमेति |
तद्ध्यस्य शैत्येन निहन्ति पित्तमाक्लेदिभावाच्च नयत्यधस्तात् ||५१०||

Food which has been partly digested (and become sour) quickly becomes digested properly by drinking cold water. It (cold water) mitigates Pitta by its coldness and pushes it downward by its moistness.

विदह्यते यस्य तु भुक्तमात्रे दह्येत हृत्कोष्ठगलं च यस्य |
द्राक्षाभयां माक्षिकसम्प्रयुक्तां लीढ्वाऽभयां वा स सुखं लभेत ||५११||
 He who develops burning sensation in the region of the heart, alimentary tract and throat after consuming food, finds comfort by licking Draksa and abhaya mixed with honey or Abhaya alone (mixed with honey).
Read – Indigestion Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Use of Sunthi and Abhaya

भवेदजीर्णं प्रति यस्य शङ्का स्निग्धस्य जन्तोर्बलिनोऽन्नकाले |
प्रातः सशुण्ठीमभयामशङ्को भुञ्जीत सम्प्राश्य हितं हितार्थी ||५१२||
The person who is unctuous and strong and who is doubtful of indigestion while taking food, should drink (the decoction of) Sunthi and Abhaya in the morning itself and consume healthy food at the usual time.

स्वल्पं यदा दोषविबद्धमामं लीनं न तेजःपथमावृणोति |
भवत्यजीर्णेऽपि तदा बुभुक्षा या मन्दबुद्धिं विषवन्निहन्ति ||५१३||
When little amount of Ama (undigested food) associated with the Doshas, envelopes the path of tejas (Pitta / digestive fire) then there develops hunger (desire to eat food) in spite of having indigestion. This false hunger will kill the unintelligent person (who consumes the food again) just like poison.

Guna Karma – Qualities and their actions

अत उर्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि गुणानां कर्मविस्तरम् |
कर्मभिस्त्वनुमीयन्ते नानाद्रव्याश्रया गुणाः ||५१४||
Further we will describe in detail, the gunas (qualities) and their Karma (actions) since various actions of substances are inferred by the different qualities present in them.

Sita and Usna

ह्लादनः स्तम्भनः शीतो मूर्च्छातृट्स्वेददाहजित् |
उष्णस्तद्विपरीतः स्यात्पाचनश्च विशेषतः ||५१५||

Sita (coldness) is comforting, withholding movement (constipating), relieves fainting, thirst and burning sensation. Usna (heat) is the opposite of this and is especially digestive.

Snigdha and Ruksha

स्नेहमार्दवकृत् स्निग्धो बलवर्णकरस्तथा |
रूक्षस्तद्विपरीतः स्याद्विशेषात् स्तम्भनः खरः ||५१६||
Snigdha (unctuousness) produces lubrication / unctuousness, softness, bestows strength and colour (complexion). Ruksa is the opposite of it, and causes withholding (movement, constipating) and roughness especially).

Piccila and Visada

पिच्छिलो जीवनो बल्यः सन्धानः श्लेष्मलो गुरुः |
विशदो विपरीतोऽस्मात् क्लेदाचूषणरोपणः ||५१७||
Piccila (sliminess) is enlivening, strengthening, and uniting, increases Kapha and is difficult for digestion. Visada (non-sliminess) is the opposite of it, producing evaporation (sucks) of moistness and healing.

Tiksna and Mrdu

दाहपाककरस्तीक्ष्णः स्रावणो, मृदुरन्यथा |
Tiksna (penetrating into the tissues) produces burning sensation, cooking (ripening) and exudation. Mrdu (mild, softness) is its opposite.

Guru and Laghu

सादोपलेपबलकृद्गुरुस्तर्पणबृंहणः ||५१८||
लघुस्तद्विपरीतः स्याल्लेखनो रोपणस्तथा |
Guru (heaviness) produces debility, coating (thickening) and bestows strength, is nourishing and causes stoutening of the body. Laghu (lightness) is its opposite; it causes scarification and healing.

दशाद्याः कर्मतः प्रोक्तास्तेषां कर्मविशेषणैः ||५१९||
Thus, were described the first ten qualities along with their special actions.
Read – Gurvadi Gunas – 20 Qualities Of Substances As Per Ayurveda

दशैवान्यान् प्रवक्ष्यामि द्रवादींस्तान्निबोध मे |
द्रवः प्रक्लेदनः, सान्द्रः स्थूलः स्याद्बन्धकारकः ||५२०||
श्लक्ष्णः पिच्छिलवज्ज्ञेयः कर्कशो विशदो यथा |
सुखानुबन्धी सूक्ष्मश्च सुगन्धो रोचनो मृदुः ||५२१||
दुर्गन्धो विपरीतोऽस्माद्धृल्लासारुचिकारकः |
सरोऽनुलोमनः प्रोक्तो, मन्दो यात्राकरः स्मृतः ||५२२||
व्यवायी चाखिलं देहं व्याप्य पाकाय कल्पते |
विकासी विकसन्नेवं धातुबन्धान् विमोक्षयेत् ||५२३||
आशुकारी तथाऽऽशुत्वाद्धावत्यम्भसि तैलवत् |
सूक्ष्मस्तु सौक्ष्म्यात् सूक्ष्मेषु स्रोतःस्वनुसरः स्मृतः ||५२४||
गुणा विंशतिरित्येवं यथावत्परिकीर्तिताः |५२५|

 Next, I will describe ten others such as drava etc; listen to it.

Drava (liquidity) – Produces moistness

Sandra (thickness) – produces thickness of the body parts and tissues and binding (withholding movement).
Slaksna (smoothness) – should be understood as similar to Picchila.
Karkasa (roughness, coarseness) – should be understood as similar to Visada (non-slimy or dry).
Sugandha (pleasant smell) – bestows happiness, is subtle / minute, helps taste and is soft (mild).
Durgandha (bad smell) – is its opposite, produces, nausea and bad taste.
Sara (Laxative) causes downwards movement of materials such as flatus, faeces, urine, foetus etc).
Sara (laxative) causes downward movement of material such as flatus, faces, urine, foetus etc.
 Manda (slowness, mildness) helps sustenance of the body.
Vikasi (causing looseness) spreads all over the body, causing looseness of the bindings in the tissues while spreading.
Asukari (quickness) – produces quick action just like oil moving on water (floating quickly).
Suksma (minuteness) is the capacity to move even inside minute channels (pores, ducts etc).
Thus, were described the twenty qualities (along with their actions) in their order.

Aharagati – fate / progress of food

सम्प्रवक्ष्याम्यतश्चोर्ध्वमाहारगतिनिश्चयम् ||५२५||
 Next, we will describe the fate of food.

पञ्चभूतात्मके देहे ह्याहारः पाञ्चभौतिकः |
विपक्वः पञ्चधा सम्यग्गुणान् स्वानभिवर्धयेत् ||५२६||
The body is composed of Pancabhutas; the food also is composed of Pancabhutas. Its digestion is also of five kinds; and the properly digested food makes for an increase of (substances) of its own quantity, categories.

अविदग्धः कफं, पित्तं विदग्धः, पवनं पुनः |
सम्यग्विपक्वो निःसार आहारः परिबृंहयेत् ||५२७||
 Food which is not digested causes increase in Kapha. That which is digested (partly) causes increases of Pitta and that which is completely digested and devoid of essence increases Vata.

Ahara mala – Waste products of food

विण्मूत्रमाहारमलः सारः प्रागीरितो रसः |
स तु व्यानेन विक्षिप्तः सर्वान् धातून् प्रतर्पयेत् ||५२८||

Faeces and urine are the waste products of food. Its essence is Rasa, described earlier (in chap. 14). This is conveyed by vyanavata all over the body and nourishes all the Dhatus (tissues).

Dhatu Mata – Waste products of Tissues

कफः पित्तं मलः खेषु स्वेदः स्यान्नखरोम च |
नेत्रविट् त्वक्षु च स्नेहो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ||५२९||
Kapha, Pitta and Kha mala (excretions of body orifices, such as eyes, ears, nose, mouth, tissues etc), sweda (sweat), Nakha and roma (nails and hair), sneha (fatty material) of eyes, faeces, and skin – these are the mala (waste products) of the Dhatus respectively.

 Notes: – this may be elaborated as follows –

  • Kapha is the waste product of Rasa Dhatu (plasma)
  • Pitta is the waste product of Rakta Dhatu (blood),
  • Excreations of the orifices are the waste products of Mamsa dhatu (muscle),
  • Sweda (sweat) is the waste product of Medo Dhatu (fat)
  • Nails and hairs are the waste products of Asthi dhatu (bones)
  • Fatty material of the eyes, faeces and skin are the wastes of majja Dhatu (marrow).

Sukra (semen) is said to be pure and not having any waste material – and hence not mentioned.
Read – Dhatu Mala: Tissue Waste Products: Ayurveda perspective

Ajirne Ratri Bhojana

Night meal during indigestion

दिवा विबुद्धे हृदये जाग्रतः पुण्डरीकवत् |
अन्नमक्लिन्नधातुत्वादजीर्णेऽपि हितं निशि ||५३०||
हृदि सम्मीलिते रात्रौ प्रसुप्तस्य विशेषतः |
क्लिन्नविस्रस्तधातुत्वादजीर्णे न हितं दिवा ||५३१||

Since during the day time, the person is awake, his heart is open like the lotus flower and the tissues are not soaked with more moisture. Therefore, consuming food at night is beneficial because the person has indigestion. On the other hand, during night time, the heart being closed because of sleep and the tissues having more moisture, consuming food in the morning (next day) is not beneficial when the person has indigestion.

इमं विधिं योऽनुमतं महामुनेर्नृपर्षिमुख्यस्य पठेद्धि यत्नतः |
स भूमिपालाय विधातुमौषधं महात्मनां चार्हति सूरिसत्तमः ||५३२||
The wise physician who studies with great intent, these procedures, advocated / approved by the great royal sage (Divodasa Dhanvantari), will be eligible to administer medicines (treatment) to kings and nobles.

इतिभगवताश्रीधन्वन्तरिणोपदिष्टायांतच्छिष्येणमहर्षिणासुश्रुतेनविरचितायांसुश्रुतसंहितायांसूत्रस्थानेषटचत्वारिंशत्तमोऽध्यायः।
Thus, ends the forty sixth chapters in Sutra Sthana of Susruthasamhita.

Thus, ends sutrasthana- the first section, exposed by the venerable Dhanvantaridivodasa and composed by his disciple, Susruta- the great sage.





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      THE HEALTH & WEIGHT LOSE GURU
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