Sushruta Samhita Chapter 45 Dravadravya Vidhi Adhyaya


This article explains Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 45 “Dravadravya Vidhi Adhyaya” – Knowledge of liquid substances.

Dravadravya Vidhi- Knowledge of liquid substances

अथातो द्रवद्रव्यविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ||२||

Now we will expound the chapter by name Dravadravya Vidhi- Knowledge of liquid substances as revealed by the venerable Dhanvantari.
Read – Benefits Of Liquid Foods – Ashtang Hriday Sutrasthan 5th Chapter

1. Jala varga – group of water

पानीयमान्तरीक्षमनिर्देश्यरसममृतं जीवनं तर्पणं धारणमाश्वासजननं श्रमक्लमपिपासामदमूर्च्छातन्द्रानिद्रादाहप्रशमनमेकान्ततः पथ्यतमं च ||३||

Antariksajala – water from the sky (rain water)

Water from the sky (rain water) is

  • having taste which is not manifest,
  • is like nectar (in effect),
  • enlivening,
  • satisfying,
  • supporting life and comforting the body / provides positivity,
  • relieves fatigue, exhaustion, thirst, toxicity, fainting, stupor, sleepiness, burning sensation and
  • is conducive / especially suitable for health (good for the channels of the body)

तदेवावनिपतितमन्यतमं रसमुपलभते स्थानविशेषान्नदीनदसरस्तडागवापीकूपचुण्टीप्रस्रवणोद्भिदविकिरकेदारपल्वलादि षु स्थानेष्ववस्थितमिति ||४||
The same (rain water) after falling to the ground, obtains difference in tastes due to various kinds of places (reservoir) such as Nadi and Nada (rivers), Saras (large natural lake), Tadaga (artificial lake), Vapi (tank with flight of steps), Kupa (tank without flight of steps), cunti (small pit made near a river), Prasravana (stream), Udbida (spring), Vikira (water oozing from the ground and collected), Kedara (meadow, field), Palvala (marshy place) etc.

तत्र, ‘लोहितकपिलपाण्डुनीलपीतशुक्लेष्ववनिप्रदेशेषु मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायाणि यथासङ्ख्यमुदकानि सम्भवन्ति इत्येके भाषन्ते ||५||

Some (authorities) say, rain water falling on the ground which is red, brown, white, yellowish, white, blue, yellow and white (colored soil) will be having tastes such as sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter and astringent respectively.
Read – Dravyadivijnaniyam Adhyaya – 9 Ashtanga Hrudaya Sutrasthana

Anyonya Anupravesha

Tastes of water falling on grounds predominant in different elements

तत्तु न सम्यक्; पृथिव्यादीनामन्योन्यानुप्रवेशकृतः सलिलरसो भवत्युत्कर्षापकर्षेण |

तत्र, स्वलक्षणभूयिष्ठायां भूमावम्लं लवणं च; अम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठायां मधुरं; तेजोगुणभूयिष्ठायां कटुकं तिक्तं च; वायुगुणभूयिष्ठायां कषायम्; आकाशगुणभूयिष्ठायामव्यक्तरसम्, अव्यक्तं ह्याकाशमित्यतः; तत् प्रधानमव्यक्तरसत्वात्, तत्पेयमान्तरीक्षालाभे ||६||

That is not correct. Tastes of water become either prominent (well manifest) or not prominent (poorly manifest) from predominance of specific elements, due to interning of Prthvi etc. (five primary elements) such as for e.g.,

  • taste of water fallen on the ground which is predominant of its own (Prthvi bhuta) will be sour and salty;
  • taste of water fallen on the ground which is predominant of Ap Bhuta (water element) will be sweet;
  • taste of water fallen on the ground predominant of Tejo Bhuta (fire element) will be pungent and bitter;
  • taste of water fallen on the ground predominant of Vayu Bhuta (air element) will be astringent;
  • taste of water fallen on the ground predominant of Akasa Bhuta (ether element) will be unmanifest in taste;

Since Akasa bhuta is itself unmanifest, the taste of water will also be prominently unmanifest (has very weak taste, is tasteless), this kind of water may be consumed in the absence of rain water.

तत्रान्तरीक्षं चतुर्विधम् |
तद्यथा- धारं, कारं, तौषारं, हैममिति |
तेषां धारं प्रधानं, लघुत्वात्; तत् पुनर्द्विविधं- गाङ्गं, सामुद्रं चेति |
तत्र गाङ्गमाश्वयुजे मासि प्रायशो वर्षति |
तयोर्द्वयोरपि परीक्षणं कुर्वीत- शाल्योदनपिण्डमकुथितमविदग्धं रजतभाजनोपहितं वर्षति देवे बहिष्कुर्वीत, स यदि मुहूर्तं स्थितस्तादृश एव भवति तदा गाङ्गं पततीत्यवगन्तव्यं; वर्णान्यत्वे सिक्थप्रक्लेदे च सामुद्रमिति विद्यात्, तन्नोपादेयम् |
सामुद्रमप्याश्वयुजे मासि गृहीतं गाङ्गवद्भवति |
गाङ्गं पुनः प्रधानं, तदुपाददीताश्वयुजे मासि |
शुचिशुक्लविततपटैकदेशच्युतमथवा हर्म्यतलपरिभ्रष्टमन्यैर्वा शुचिभिर्भाजनैर्गृहीतं सौवर्णे राजते मृन्मये वा पात्रे निदध्यात् |
तत् सर्वकालमुपयुञ्जीत, तस्यालाभे भौमम् |
तच्चाकाशगुणबहुलम् |
तत् पुनः सप्तविधम् |
तद्यथा- कौपं, नादेयं, सारसं, ताडागं, प्रास्रवणम्, औद्भिदं, चौण्ट्यमिति ||७||

Read – Panchamahabhuta: Application, Areas of Utility in Ayurveda treatment

Antariksa Jala (atmospheric water) is of four kinds, viz,

  1. Dhara (water falling in torrents or rain water),
  2. Kara (water from melting of hailstones / icicles),
  3. Tausara (water dew / mist) and
  4. Haima (water from melting of snow/ ice);

Out of these,

1. Dhara – Dhara (torrential rain water) is important (best) because of its lightness. This again is of two kinds viz, Ganga (Atmospheric) and Samudra (terrestrial).

Ganga is rain water usually falling in Asvayuja month (mid-sep-oct). Both these should be put to test (as follows): –

Test for Ganga water – Rain water is collected in a silver vessel and a lump of boiled rice is immersed in it, left therein for a time period of one muhurta and then examined. If the lump is seen to be not very moist and has not changed in color but remains as it was before, then that water is to be understood as Ganga (atmospheric water).

Test for Samudra water – If (after a similar test as done with Ganga water) there appears a change of color or the particles of the lump are moist (becoming slimy and very soft)’ then that water should be understood as Samudra (terrestrial water). This should not be made use of. Even this Samudra jala, if collected in the month of Asvayuja will be like Ganga (Atmospheric/rain water).

Method of collection and storage of Ganga water – Ganga (rain water) is the most important. It should be collected during Asvayuja month (sep-oct). This should be collected from a place which is clean, covered with a clean white cloth; or from the roof top which is clean or collected directly into a clean vessel and then stored in vessels made of gold, silver or mud.

Alternative for Ganga Jala – This water if not available, then Bhauma Jala (terrestrial/ ground water) which is predominant of qualities of Akasa Bhuta may be used.

That (Bhauma Jala) is of seven kinds viz.

  1. Kaupa (Tank with flight of steps),
  2. Nadeya (River),
  3. Sarasa (natural lake),
  4. Tadaga (artificial lake),
  5. Prasravana (waterfall),
  6. Audbhida (spring) and
  7. Cauntya (pit burrowed in the ground).
    Read – Qualities Of Water, Drinks and Foods Stored In Different Vessels

Different kinds of water to be used in different seasons

तत्र वर्षास्वान्तरिक्षमौद्भिदं वा सेवेत, महागुणत्वात्; शरदि सर्वं, प्रसन्नत्वात्; हेमन्ते सारसं ताडागं वा; वसन्ते कौपं प्रास्रवणं वा; ग्रीष्मेऽप्येवं; प्रावृषि चौण्ट्यमनभिवृष्टं सर्वं चेति ||८||
During Varsa rtu (rainy season), atmospheric water (rain water) or water from springs may be used, because of their profound good qualities.
During Sarat rtu (autumn) all kinds of water may be used because this water is clear (free from contaminants).
During Hemanta Rtu (dewy / winter), water of either natural lake or artificial lake (tank) may be used.
During Vasanta Rtu (spring season), water of artificial tank or a spring may be used.
In Grisma (summer) also it shall be used in the same manner (same kind of water).
During Pravrt (early rainy season) water collected in burrows and all other kinds which are not from rain may be used.

Effects of bathing in contaminated water

कीटमूत्रपुरीषाण्डशवकोथप्रदूषितम् |
तृणपर्णोत्करयुतं कलुषं विषसंयुतम् ||९||
योऽवगाहेत वर्षासु पिबेद्वाऽपि नवं जलम् |
स बाह्याभ्यन्तरान् रोगान् प्राप्नुयात् क्षिप्रमेव तु ||१०||

He who bathes by immersing in rain water, which has been contaminated with presence of insects (worms), or excreta, ova, dead bodies of animals, which is putrified, having great accumulation of grasses and leaves, which is dirty or containing poisonous substances, or who drinks fresh rain water during varsa rtu – rainy season- will get affected by both external and internal diseases quickly.
Read – Benefits And Usage of Water As per Ayurveda: Complete Compilation

Vyapannajala – Polluted water

तत्र यत् पङ्कशैवलहठतृणपद्मपत्रप्रभृतिभिरवच्छन्नं रविशशिकिरणानिलैर्नाभिजुष्टं गन्धवर्णरसोपसृष्टं तद्व्यापन्नमिति विद्यात् |
तस्य स्पर्शरूपरसगन्धवीर्यविपाकदोषाः षट् सम्भवन्ति |
तत्र, खरता पैच्छिल्यमौष्ण्यं दन्तग्राहिता च स्पर्शदोषः, पङ्कसिकताशैवालबहुवर्णता रूपदोषः; व्यक्तरसता रसदोषः; अनिष्टगन्धता गन्धदोषः; यदुपयुक्तं तृष्णागौरवशूलकफप्रसेकानापादयति स विर्यदोषः; यदुपयुक्तं चिराद्विपच्यते विष्टम्भयति वा स विपाकदोष इति |
त एते आन्तरिक्षे न सन्ति ||११||

Signs of polluted water – Water should be considered as polluted when –

  • It is covered with slush, algae, weed, grass, leaves of lotus etc.
  • It is not exposed to rays of sun and moon and air,
  • it is having bad odor, abnormal color, and abnormal taste very prominently

Jala Dosha – Such polluted water will have six kinds of doshas (blemishes) – such as that of touch, sight, taste, odor, potence and taste after digestion.

  1. Sparsha dosha (blemishes of touch) – roughness (hardness) sliminess, warmth, producing tingling, of the teeth
  2. Rupa dosha (blemishes of sight) – presence of slush, sand, algae and many colors
  3. Rasa dosha (blemishes of taste) – prominence of taste is the blemish of taste,
  4. Gandha dosha (blemishes of smell) – unpleasant odor is the blemish of smell;
  5. Virya dosha (blemishes of potency) – producing thirst, feeling of heaviness, abdominal pain, more elimination of Kapha from the mouth etc,
  6. Vipaka dosha (blemishes of taste after digestion) – the water gets digested after a long time following its consumption or cause constipation

These blemishes are not present in atmospheric water (pure rain water).
Read – Benefits Of Drinking Hot Water, Contra Indications

Jala Sodhana- Purification of water

व्यापन्नस्य चाग्निक्वथनं सूर्यातपप्रतापनं तप्तायःपिण्डसिकतालोष्ट्राणां वा निर्वापणं प्रसादनं च कर्तव्यं, नागचम्पकोत्पलपाटलापुष्पप्रभृतिभिश्चाधिवासनमिति ||१२||
Below mentioned are the measures used to purify contaminated water –

  • boiling over fire,
  • heating by exposing to Sun’s rays,
  • immersing heated iron balls, sand or stone into water (are the methods to purify contaminated water)
  • putting flowers such as Naga Campaka, Utpala, Patala etc into water and allowing these for some time to stay in the water (removes bad smell and imparts good smell)

What type of water should be used for drinking purposes?

सौवर्णे राजते ताम्रे कांस्ये मणिमयेऽपि वा |
पुष्पावतंसं भौमे वा सुगन्धि सलिलं पिबेत् ||१३||
 Water kept stored in vessels made of gold, silver, copper, bronze, precious stones or in earthen pots and made fragrant by putting flowers into it should be used for drinking.

व्यापन्नं वर्जयेन्नित्यं तोयं यच्चाप्यनार्तवम् |
दोषसञ्जननं ह्येतन्नाददीताहितं तु तत् ||१४||
व्यापन्नमुदकं यस्तु पिबतीहाप्रसादितम् |
श्वयथुं पाण्डुरोगं च त्वग्दोषमविपाकताम् ||१५||
श्वासकासप्रतिश्यायशूलगुल्मोदराणि च |
अन्यान्वा विषमान्रोगान्प्राप्नुयादचिरेण सः ||१६||

 Polluted water and rain water of unusual seasons should not be consumed on any day (should be rejected always). Both these cause aggravation of the Doshas and are unsuitable to health. He who drinks polluted water without purifying it, gets affected quickly by dreaded diseases such as dropsy, anaemia, skin diseases, improper digestion, dyspnoea, cough, nasal catarrh, abdominal pain, tumors of the abdomen, abdominal enlargement or any others.
Read – Ushapana: Drinking Water Early in the Morning

Jala Prasadana – clearing turbidity of water

तत्र सप्त कलुषस्य प्रसादनानि भवन्ति |
तद्यथा- कतकगोमेदकबिसग्रन्थिशैवालमूलवस्त्राणि मुक्तामणिश्चेति ||१७||

Methods of clearing the turbidity in polluted water are seven – such as –

  • use of Kataka (adding the paste of the Kataka nut to water)
  • use of Gomedaka (gem/ dolomite)
  • use of bisa granthi (Rhizome of lotus),
  • use of Saivala Mula (root of Algae) – these are immersed in water;
  • Vastra (cloth, filtering through it),
  • Mukta (pearl) – immersing it in water and
  • Mani (crystals of Rocks) or gems (by immersing in water)

Jala Niksepana – Water stands

पञ्च निक्षेपणानि भवन्ति |
तद्यथा- फलकं, त्र्यष्टकं, मुञ्जवलय, उदकमञ्चिका, शिक्यं चेति ||१८||
Water stands are five, such as –

  1. wooden planks, 
  2. tripod stand with eight steps (stages),
  3. rings of Munja grass,
  4. watershed (chamber / room built with cane or bamboo reads in open space) and
  5. pot hangers

Sitikarana – Water cooling

सप्त शीतीकरणानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा- प्रवातस्थापनम्, उदकप्रक्षेपणं, यष्टिकाभ्रामणं, व्यजनं, वस्त्रोद्धरणं, वालुकाप्रक्षेपणं, शिक्यावलम्बनं चेति ||१९||
Methods of keeping the water cool are seven such as –

  • exposing to breeze – keeping the water or vessel containing water exposed to breeze, 
  • wrapping the pots with cloth and sprinkling water (over the cloth) frequently,
  • stirring with stick,
  • fanning the water,
  • lifting through cloth (dipping clean cloth in water and lifting, repeating this act frequently;
  • keeping the water pot hidden in a sand bed and
  • keeping the pot in a hanger (tied in open space and made to move like a pendulum)

Peyajala – Potable water

निर्गन्धमव्यक्तरसं तृष्णाघ्नं शुचि शीतलम् |
अच्छं लघु च हृद्यं च तोयं गुणवदुच्यते ||२०||

Water which has no smell, no prominent taste quenches thirst, clean, cold (cool), light (easy for digestion) and pleasing to the mind is said to be best in quantities (suitable for drinking).
Read – Drinking Water before or After food? A Wrong Habit – Ayurveda Proof

Nadi Jala – River water

तत्र नद्यः पश्चिमाभिमुखाः पथ्याः, लघूदकत्वात्; पूर्वाभिमुखास्तु न प्रशस्यन्ते, गुरूदकत्वात्; दक्षिणाभिमुखा नातिदोषलाः, साधारणत्वात् |

तत्र सह्यप्रभवाःकुष्ठं जनयन्ति, विन्ध्यप्रभवाः कुष्ठं पाण्डुरोगं च, मलयप्रभवाः कृमीन्, महेन्द्रप्रभवाः श्लीपदोदराणि, हिमवत्प्रभवा हृद्रोगश्वयथुशिरोरोगश्लीपदगलगण्डान्, प्राच्यावन्त्या अपरावन्त्याश्चार्शांस्युपजनयन्ति, पारियात्रप्रभवाः पथ्या बलारोग्यकर्य इति ||२१||
Water of rivers which flow westwards is healthy because of lightness (easily digestable). Water of rivers flowing eastward is not ideal because of heaviness (hard for digestion). Water of rivers flowing southwards does not increase the doshas greatly, because of moderateness.

Water (of rivers) arising from Sahya (southern branch of western ghat) produce leprosy. Those arising from Vindhya Mountain produce worms (intestinal parasites). Those arising from Mahendra Mountains (Northern range of western Ghat) produce filariasis and abdominal enlargements. Those arising from Himvat (Himalaya) mountain produce heart disease, dropsy, diseases of the head, filariasis and goiter.

Water (of rivers) flowing in provinces such as Pracya (central Bengal and north Orissa), Avanti (around Ujjain City) and Aparavantya (Konkan) produce hemorrhoids. Those of the Pariyatra (western ranges of Vindhya Mountains) are healthy, bestow strength and health.

Swift and slow flowing rivers, rivers flowing in the deserts

नद्यः शीघ्रवहा लघ्व्यः प्रोक्ता याश्चामलोदकाः |
गुर्व्यः शैवालसञ्छन्नाः कलुषा मन्दगाश्च याः ||२२||
प्रायेण नद्यो मरुषु सतिक्ता लवणान्विताः |
लघ्व्यः समधुराश्चैव पौरुषेया बले हिताः ||२३||

Water of swift flowing rivers which is clear is said to be light, while that of rivers flowing slow, covered with algae and dirt is said to be heavy (not easily digestible).
Most of the time the rivers flowing in deserts and their water are bitter, salty, slightly astringent and sweet in taste, light for digestion and beneficial to increase physical strength.
Read – Classification Of Foods And Drinks – Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana 27

Right time to collect ground water

तत्र सर्वेषामेव भौमानां ग्रहणं प्रत्यूषसि,
तत्र ह्यमलत्वं शैत्यं चाधिकं भवति,
स एव चापां परो गुण इति ||२४||

All kinds of ground water should be collected in the early morning, because at that time, it will be free of pollution and colder; these are the ideal quantities of water.

Gangambu Tulya Jala

दिवार्ककिरणैर्जुष्टं निशायामिन्दुरश्मिभिः |
अरूक्षमनभिष्यन्दि तत्तुल्यं गगनाम्बुना ||२५||

 That which is touched by rays of the sun during day and rays of the moon during nights, which is neither dry nor very moist, is equal to rain water (in qualities).

Qualities of rain water collected in clean vessel

गगनाम्बु त्रिदोषघ्नं गृहीतं यत् सुभाजने |
बल्यं रसायनं मेध्यं पात्रापेक्षि ततः परम् ||२६||
Rain water collected in a clean vessel mitigates all the three Doshas, is strengthening, rejuvenating, good for intelligence, all its qualities are dependent on the container.

Water arising from Candrakanta

रक्षोघ्नं शीतलं ह्लादि ज्वरदाहविषापहम् |
चन्द्रकान्तोद्भवं वारि पित्तघ्नं विमलं स्मृतम् ||२७||

Water arising from Candrakanta (water of rivers flowing through white marble reefs) destroys demons (Bacteria, virus etc), is coolant, pleasing to the mind, relieves fever, burning sensation and poison, mitigates pitta and is pure (good for drinking).

Sitambu (cold water)

मूर्च्छापित्तोष्णदाहेषु विषे रक्ते मदात्यये |
भ्रमक्लमपरीतेषु तमके वमथौ तथा ||२८||
ऊर्ध्वगे रक्तपित्ते च शीतमम्भः प्रशस्यते |२९|
Cold water is ideal for use in fainting, aggravation of pitta, increases of body heat, burning sensation, poison, aggravation of blood, alcoholic intoxication, giddiness, and exhaustion, asthma, vomiting and bleeding from upper routes.
Read – Cold Quality – Sheeta Meaning, Action On Doshas, Therapeutic Uses

Contraindications of cold-water usage

पार्श्वशूले प्रतिश्याये वातरोगे गलग्रहे ||२९||
आध्माने स्तिमिते कोष्ठे सद्यःशुद्धे नवज्वरे |
हिक्कायां स्नेहपीते च शीताम्बु परिवर्जयेत् ||३०||

Use of cold water should be avoided in diseases like pain of the flanks, nasal catarrh, diseases of vata origin, pain in the throat, flatulence, loss of movement in the abdomen; by persons who have undergone purificatory therapies just then, who have recent fever, hiccup and who have just consumed fats (prior to purificatory   therapies).

Properties / qualities of different kinds of water

नादेयं वातलं रूक्षं दीपनं लघु लेखनम् |
तदभिष्यन्दि मधुरं सान्द्रं गुरु कफावहम् ||३१||
तृष्णाघ्नं सारसं बल्यं कषायं मधुरं लघु |
ताडागं वातलं स्वादु कषायं कटुपाकि च ||३२||
वातश्लेष्महरं वाप्यं सक्षारं कटु पित्तलम् |
सक्षारं पित्तलं कौपं श्लेष्मघ्नं दीपनं लघु ||३३||
चौण्ट्यमग्निकरं रूक्षं मधुरं कफकृन्न च |
कफघ्नं दीपनं हृद्यं लघु प्रस्रवणोद्भवम् ||३४||
मधुरं पित्तशमनमविदाह्यौद्भिदं स्मृतम् |
वैकिरं कटु सक्षारं श्लेष्मघ्नं लघु दीपनम् ||३५||
कैदारं मधुरं प्रोक्तं विपाके गुरु दोषलम् |
तद्वत्पाल्वलमुद्दिष्टं विशेषाद्दोषलं तु तत् ||३६||
सामुद्रमुदकं विस्रं लवणं सर्वदोषकृत्
अनेकदोषमानूपं वार्यभिष्यन्दि गर्हितम् ||३७||
एभिर्दोषैरसंयुक्तं निरवद्यं तु जाङ्गलम् |
पाकेऽविदाहि तृष्णाघ्नं प्रशस्तं प्रीतिवर्धनम् ||३८||
दीपनं स्वादु शीतं च तोयं साधारणं लघु |
कफमेदोऽनिलामघ्नं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ||३९||
श्वासकासज्वरहरं पथ्यमुष्णोदकं सदा |४०|

River water – increases Vata, is dry, and kindles digestion, light, scarifying, is sweet and thick, increases moistness inside, is heavy (hard for digestion) and aggravates Kapha.
Water of Saras – natural lakes mitigates thirst, is strengthening, astringent and sweet in taste and light.
Water of Tadaga (tank) – increases Vata, sweet and astringent and becomes pungent after digestion.
Water of Vapi (well) – mitigates Vata and Kapha, slightly astringent, pungent and increases pitta.
Water of kaupa (deep well) – is slightly alkaline, increases Pitta, mitigates Kapha, kindles digestion and is light.
Water of Caunti (pits / burrows) – stimulates digestion, is dry, sweet and does not increase Kapha.
Water from Prasravana (streams) – mitigates Kapha, kindles digestion, good for heart and light.
Water from udbhida (springs) – is sweet, mitigates pitta, does not create heartburn.
Water oozing from the ground (Vaikira) – is pungent, alkaline, mitigates kapha, light and kindles digestion.
Water from Kedara (fields) – is sweet after digestion, is heavy and increases all the dosas.
Water from Palvala (marshy regions) – is similar and aggravates the dosas especially.
Water from the Samudra (sea) – is non-slimy, has a bad smell, salty and increases all the Dosas.
Anupa Vari (water from marshy region) – contains many blemishes, increases moistness inside and is not suitable for health.
Jangala jala (water from desert-like regions) – is free from the above bad qualities and so good for use.
Water from Sadharana (temperate) regions – does not cause burning sensation after digestion, quenches thirst, is suitable for drinking, promotes happiness, kindles digestion, sweet in taste, cold in potency and is light.
Warm water (Usnodaka) – mitigates Kapha, Medas and Vata, kindles digestion, cleanses the urinary bladder, cures dyspnoea, cough and fever and is suited to health at all times.

यत् क्वाथ्यमानं निर्वेगं निष्फेनं निर्मलं लघु ||४०||
चतुर्भागावशेषं तु तत्तोयं गुणवत् स्मृतम् |
न च पर्युषितं देयं कदाचिद्वारि जानता ||४१||

अम्लीभूतं कफोत्क्लेदि न हितं तत् पिपासवे |
मद्यपानात्समुद्भूते रोगे पित्तोत्थिते तथा ||४२||

सन्निपातसमुत्थे च शृतशीतं प्रशस्यते |४३|

Chaturbhaga avashesa jala – That water which does not spill out while boiling, which is free of froth, is clean, light and reduced to one-fourth quantity after boiling is said to be ideal.

Paryusita Jala (stale water which has been kept for more than one day) – should never be given to a thirty person; so also, that which has become sour and which increases Kapha.

Srtasita jala (water boiled and cooked) is ideally suitable in diseases produced by drinking wine, aggravated Pitta and Sannipata (aggravation of all the three doshas simultaneously).
Read – Hot Water Vs Cold Water For Bathing

Nalikerodaka – coconut water

स्निग्धं स्वादु हिमं हृद्यं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ||४३||
वृष्यं पित्तपिपासाघ्नं नालिकेरोदकं गुरु |४४|

 Water of coconut is unctuous, sweet, cold, good for the heart (pleasing to the mind), kindles digestion, cleanses the urinary bladder, aphrodisiac, heavy (hard for digestion), mitigates Pitta and cures severe thirst.
Read – Coconut, Coconut Water, Flower Benefits, Side Effects, Research, Remedies

Benefits of boiled and cooled water and conditions in which moderate quantity of water needs to be consumed

दाहातीसारपित्तासृङ्मूर्च्छामद्यविषार्तिषु ||४४||
शृतशीतं जलं शस्तं तृष्णाच्छर्दिभ्रमेषु च |
अरोचके प्रतिश्याये प्रसेके श्वयथौ क्षये ||४५||
मन्देऽग्नावुदरे कुष्ठे ज्वरे नेत्रामये तथा |
व्रणे च मधुमेहे च पानीयं मन्दमाचरेत् ||४६||

Water boiled and cooled is best suited for persons suffering from burning sensation, diarrhea, and diseases of Pitta and rakta origin, fainting, alcoholism, poison, thirst, vomiting and giddiness.

Drinking of water should be moderate in diseases such as loss of taste, common cold, more of salivation, dropsy, consumption, dyspepsia (diminished digestive power), enlargement of the abdomen, leprosy (and some other skin diseases) fever, eye diseases, ulcers and diabetes mellitus.

 2. Ksira Varga- group of milks

अथ क्षीरवर्गः
गव्यमाजं तथा चौष्ट्रमाविकं माहिषं च यत् |
अश्वायाश्चैव नार्याश्च करेणूनां च यत्पयः ||४७||

Payah (milk) is obtained from the cow, goat, camel, sheep, buffalo, horse, women and elephant (so it is of eight kinds).

Reasons why milk is beneficial for all living beings

तत्त्वनेकौषधिरसप्रसादं प्राणदं गुरु |
मधुरं पिच्छिलं शीतं स्निग्धं श्लक्ष्णं सरं मृदु |
सर्वप्राणभृतां तस्मात् सात्म्यं क्षीरमिहोच्यते ||४८||

It (milk) is the essence of many plants, bestower (sustainer) of life, heavy (hard for digestion), sweet, slimy, cold (impotency), unctuous (fatty) smooth, laxative (helps movement of things) and soft (mild in actions) and hence beneficial to all living beings even by constant use.

Reasons for milk being not forbidden for usage for all living beings

तत्र सर्वमेव क्षीरं प्राणिनामप्रतिषिद्धं जातिसात्म्यात्, वातपित्तशोणितमानसेष्वपि विकारेष्वविरुद्धं, जीर्णज्वरकासश्वासशोषक्षयगुल्मोन्मादोदरमूर्च्छाभ्रममददाहपिपासाहृद्बस्तिदोष- पाण्डुरोगग्रहणीदोषार्शःशूलोदावर्तातिसारप्रवाहिकायोनिरोगगर्भास्रावरक्तपित्तश्रमक्लमहरं, पाप्मापहं बल्यं वृष्यं वाजीकरणं रसायनं मेध्यं वयःस्थापनमायुष्यं जीवनं बृंहणं सन्धानं वमनविरेचनास्थापनं तुल्यगुणत्वाच्चौजसो वर्धनं बालवृद्धक्षतक्षीणानां क्षुद्व्यवायव्यायामकर्शितानां च पथ्यतमम् ||४९||

All varieties of milk are not forbidden for use by all living beings, because

  • of its habituation by birth;
  • it is not against diseases caused by vata, Pitta, sonata (Rakta) and even mind (mental disorders),
  • cures diseases such as chronic fever, cough, dyspnoea, consumption, pthisis, abdominal tumor, insanity, enlargement of the abdomen, fainting, giddiness, intoxication, burning sensation, profound thirst, diseases of the heart and urinary bladder, anaemia, duodenal disease, piles, colic, upward movement of vata in the abdomen, diarrhea, dysentery, diseases of the vagina, abortion, bleeding disease, fatigue, and exhaustion;
  • it wards off sin,
  • bestows strength,
  • is aphrodisiac,
  • increases sexual prowess,
  • rejuvenator,
  • good for intelligence,
  • withholds aging, prolongs life- span;
  • is envilivening,
  • stoutening the body,
  • unites broken parts,
  • helpful in therapies like emesis, purgation and decoction enema,
  • increases ojas (essence of tissues) because of identical properties;
  • ideally suited for health in children, old people, those suffering from injury to chest (lungs) and those emaciated by hunger (starvation), copulation and physical activities

Go Ksira – Cow’s milk

अल्पाभिष्यन्दि गोक्षीरं स्निग्धं गुरु रसायनम् |
रक्तपित्तहरं शीतं मधुरं रसपाकयोः ||५०||
जीवनीयं तथा वातपित्तघ्नं परमं स्मृतम् |५१|
Cow’s milk increases moistness (in the channels and tissue-pores) slightly, is unctuous (fatty), heavy (hard for digestion), rejuvenator, mitigates Rakta and Pitta aggravation (or cures bleeding diseases), cold (in potency), sweet in taste and taste after digestion, enliving and best to mitigate aggravation of Vata and Pitta.
Read – Cow’s Milk Benefits According To Ayurveda

Aja Ksira – Goat’s Milk

गव्यतुल्यगुणं त्वाजं विशेषाच्छोषिणां हितम् ||५१||
दीपनं लघु सङ्ग्राहि श्वासकासास्रपित्तनुत् |
अजानामल्पकायत्वात् कटुतिक्तनिषेवणात् ||५२||
नात्यम्बुपानाद्व्यायामात् सर्वव्याधिहरं पयः |५३|
Goat’s milk is similar in properties as that of cow’s milk and especially suitable for patients of consumption (pulmonary tuberculosis), kindles digestion, light (easy for digestion), is constipating, cures dyspnoea, cough and bleeding disease. Because of the goat having a small body, consuming foods of pungent and bitter tastes, drinking very less quantity of water and doing more physical activities, milk of goat cures all diseases.

Ustra Ksira- Camel’s milk

रूक्षोष्णं लवणं किञ्चिदौष्ट्रं स्वादुरसं लघु ||५३||
शोफगुल्मोदरार्शोघ्नं कृमिकुष्ठविषापहम् |५४|
 Camel’s milk is dry, hot, slightly salty and sweet, light (easy for digestion) cures dropsy, abdominal tumors, enlargement of the abdomen, piles, intestinal worms, leprosy and diseases due to poisons.

Avi Ksira- Sheep’s milk

आविकं मधुरं स्निग्धं गुरु पित्तकफावहम् ||५४||
पथ्यं केवलवातेषु कासे चानिलसम्भवे |५५|
Sheep milk is sweet, unctuous, heavy, increases pitta and Kapha, beneficial in (conditions caused due to) aggravation of only Vata (not associated with other Doshas) and cough produced by Vata.
Read – Sheep Meat and Sheep Milk Benefits – Ayurveda Details

Mahisa Ksira – buffalo’s milk

महाभिष्यन्दि मधुरं माहिषं वह्निनाशनम् ||५५||
निद्राकरं शीततरं गव्यात् स्निग्धतरं गुरु |५६|

Buffalo’s milk increases moisture in the tissues greatly, is sweet in taste, destroys digestive fire, and produces sleep, very cold and more unctuous (fatty) than cow’s milk.
Read – Buffalo Meat, Buffalo Milk and Buffalo Products – Benefits and Ayurvedic Explanation

Ekasapha prani Ksira – milk of animals of single hoof

उष्णमैकशफं बल्यं शाखावातहरं पयः ||५६||
मधुराम्लरसं रूक्षं लवणानुरसं लघु |५७|
Milk of animals of single (unsplit) hoof (horse, donkey etc) is hot (in potency), strengthening, mitigates diseases of Vata origin in the extremities (or tissues), sweet and sour in taste with salt as secondary taste, dry and light (easily digestible).

Nari Ksira / Stanya – woman’s milk / breast milk

हस्तिन्या मधुरं वृष्यं कषायानुरसं गुरु ||५८||
स्निग्धं स्थैर्यकरं शीतं चक्षुष्यं बलवर्धनम् |५९|
 Milk of She-elephant is sweet, aphrodisiac, astringent in secondary taste, heavy (hard for digestion), unctuous, bestows stability, cold in potency, well for eyes (vision) and augments strength.
Read – Human Breast Milk Benefits, Ways To Increase Production

Hastini Ksira- She-elephant’s milk

हस्तिन्या मधुरं वृष्यं कषायानुरसं गुरु ||५८||
स्निग्धं स्थैर्यकरं शीतं चक्षुष्यं बलवर्धनम् |५९|
 Milk of She-elephant is sweet, aphrodisiac, astringent in secondary taste, heavy (hard for digestion), unctuous, bestows stability, cold in potency, well for eyes (vision) and augments strength.

Properties / qualities of milk obtained in the night and day
प्रायः प्राभातिकं क्षीरं गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् ||५९||
रात्र्याः सोमगुणत्वाच्च व्यायामाभावतस्तथा |
दिवाकराभितप्तानां व्यायामानिलसेवनात् ||६०||
श्रमघ्नं वातनुच्चैव चक्षुष्यं चापराह्णिकम् |६१|

Milk obtained in the morning (from animals) is usually heavy (difficult for digestion), constipating, cold (in potency) because of predominance of qualities of the moon at nights and absence of physical activity (of the animals at nights). Milk obtained in the day / afternoon relieves fatigue, mitigates vata, and is good for vision because of the animals getting exposed to sunlight and breeze and indulging in physical activities.

Ama – Pakva ksira

Uncooked and cooked milk

पयोऽभिष्यन्दि गुर्वामं प्रायशः परिकीर्तितम् ||६१||
तदेवोक्तं लघुतरमनभिष्यन्दि वै शृतम् |
वर्जयित्वा स्त्रियाः स्तन्यमाममेव हि तद्धितम् ||६२||

Ama (uncooked) milk increases, moistness of the tissues generally.
Srta (boiled milk) is very light (easily digestible) and dose not increase moistness (or increases very slightly).
Except for woman’s milk which is good (for health) in its uncooked state only, all other kinds are good only after cooking

Dharosna Ksira

धारोष्णं गुणवत् क्षीरं विपरीतमतोऽन्यथा |

तदेवातिशृतं शीतं गुरु बृंहणमुच्यते ||६३||

Warm milk drawn out in a stream directly from the udder is rich in qualities, whereas others collected in vessels and used later are opposite.
Milk cooked too much and then cooled is hard for digestion and is stoutening.

Tyajya ksira – Milk to be rejected

अनिष्टगन्धमम्लं च विवर्णं विरसं च यत् |
वर्ज्यं सलवणं क्षीरं यच्च विग्रथितं भवेत् ||६४||
Milk that emits a bad smell, sour, discolored, having tastes other than its own, slightly salty and which has coagulated should be rejected.
Read – 21 Foods That Are Incompatible With Milk

इति क्षीरवर्गः 

Thus ends the groups of milk

 3. Dadhivarga – group of curd/ yoghurt

अथ दधिवर्गः दधि तु मधुरमम्लमत्यम्लं चेति; तत्कषायानुरसं स्निग्धमुष्णं पीनसविषमज्वरातिसारारोचकमूत्रकृच्छ्रकार्श्यापहं वृष्यं प्राणकरं मङ्गल्यं च ||६५||
Dadhi (curd / yoghurt / inspissated milk / curdled milk) is of three kinds – sweet, sour and very sour. It has astringent as the secondary taste; is unctuous (fatty), hot (in potency), relieves (good for) rhinitis, irregular, (intermittent) fevers, diarrhea, loss of taste / appetite, dysuria and emaciation; is aphrodisiac, sustains life and signifies auspiciousness.

महाभिष्यन्दि मधुरं कफमेदोविवर्धनम् |
कफपित्तकृदम्लं स्यादत्यम्लं रक्तदूषणम् ||६६||
Sweet curds – Curds (yoghurt) which is sweet increases moisture in the tissues greatly and aggravates Kapha and Medas (fat tissues).
Sour curds – Curds (yoghurt) which is sour aggravates Kapha and Pitta.

Very sour curds – That (curds, yoghurt) which is very sour vitiates the blood.

विदाहि सृष्टविण्मूत्रं मन्दजातं त्रिदोषकृत् |६७|
Mandajata (or Mandakadadhi- curds not well formed) causes sensation during digestion, eliminates faeces and urine and aggravates all the three Dosas simultaneously.
Read – Curd Benefits, Side Effects As Per Ayurveda

Go Dadhi – Curds from cow’s milk

स्निग्धं विपाके मधुरं दीपनं बलवर्धनम् ||६७||
वातापहं पवित्रं च दधि गव्यं रुचिप्रदम् |६८|

Go Dadhi (curds prepared from cow’s milk) is unctuous, sweet after digestion, appetizer, augments strength, mitigates Vata, auspicious and bestows taste.

Aja Dadhi – Curds of Goat’s Milk

दध्याजं कफपित्तघ्नं लघु वातक्षयापहम् ||६८||
दुर्नामश्वासकासेषु हितमग्नेश्च दीपनम् |६९|
Aja Dadhi mitigates (aggravation of) Kapha and Pitta, light (easy for digestion) removes decrease of Vata (increases Vata), beneficial in piles, dyspnea, and cough and kindles digestive fire.

Mahisa Dadhi – curds of buffalo’s milk

विपाके मधुरं वृष्यं वातपित्तप्रसादनम् ||६९||
बलासवर्धनं स्निग्धं विशेषाद्दधि माहिषम् |७०|
Mahisa Dadhi (curds prepared from buffalo’s milk) is sweet after digestion, aphrodisiac, mitigates Vata and Pitta and especially aggravates balasa (kapha) and is unctuous (fatty) greatly.

Ustra Dadhi – curds of camel’s milk

विपाके कटु सक्षारं गुरु भेद्यौष्ट्रिकं दधि ||७०||
वातमर्शांसि कुष्ठानि कृमीन् हन्त्युदराणि च |७१|
Austrika Dadhi – (curds from camel milk) is pungent after digestion, is slight alkaline in taste, heavy (hard for digestion), mitigates vata, cures piles, leprosy (and some other skin diseases), worms (intestinal) and enlargements of the abdomen.

Avika dadhi – curds of sheep’s milk

कोपनं कफवातानां दुर्नाम्नां चाविकं दधि ||७१||
रसे पाके च मधुरमत्यभिष्यन्दि दोषलम् |७२|
Avika dadhi (curds prepared from sheep milk) aggravates Kapha and Vata, exacerbates piles, is sweet both in taste and taste after digestion, increases moisture inside the tissues greatly and causes aggravation of all the doshas.

Badava Dadhi- curds of horse’s milk

दीपनीयमचक्षुष्यं वाडवं दधि वातलम् ||७२||
रूक्षमुष्णं कषायं च कफमूत्रापहं च तत् |७३|
Badava Dadhi (curds from horse’s milk) kindles digestion, not good for the eyes (vision), aggravates Vata, is dry, hot in potency, astringent in taste, mitigates Kapha and urine.

Nari Dadhi – curds of woman’s milk

स्निग्धं विपाके मधुरं बल्यं सन्तर्पणं गुरु ||७३||
चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं दोषघ्नं दधि नार्या गुणोत्तरम् |७४|
Nari Dadhi (curds from women’s milk) is unctuous, sweet after digestion, bestows strength and nourishment, heavy, best for the eyes (vision), and mitigates aggravation of Doshas and best in qualities.

Hastini dadhi – curds of elephant’s milk

लघु पाके बलासघ्नं वीर्योष्णं पक्तिनाशनम् ||७४||
कषायानुरसं नाग्या दधि वर्चोविवर्धनम् |७५|
Nagya Dadhi (or Hastini dadhi) curds from She-elephant’s milk) is light, mitigates Kapha, hot in potency, destroys power of digestion, has astringent as secondary taste and increases faeces.
Read – Health Benefits Of Curd From Different Animals

Best milk among the lot

दधीन्युक्तानि यानीह गव्यादीनि पृथक् पृथक् ||७५||
विज्ञेयमेवं सर्वेषु गव्यमेव गुणोत्तरम् |७६|
Out of the curds enumerated separately so far, only that prepared from cow’s milk is to be understood as best in qualities.

Parisruta Dadhi

वातघ्नं कफकृत् स्निग्धं बृंहणं नातिपित्तकृत् ||७६||
कुर्याद्भक्ताभिलाषं च दधि यत् सुपरिस्रुतम् |७७|
 Curds which have been filtered through cloth well (many times) mitigates Vata, increases Kapha, is unctuous, stoutening, does not aggravate Pitta greatly and enhances desire for food.

Srta Ksira Dadhi

शृतात् क्षीरात्तु यज्जातं गुणवद्दधि तत् स्मृतम् ||७७||
वातपित्तहरं रुच्यं धात्वग्निबलवर्धनम् |७८|
Srta ksira Dadhi (curds prepared from boiled milk) is good, mitigates Vata and Pitta, bestows taste and increases the strength of digestive fire of the tissues.

Dadhi Sara

दध्नः सरो गुरुर्वृष्यो विज्ञेयोऽनिलनाशनः ||७८||
वह्नेर्विधमनश्चापि कफशुक्रविवर्धनः |७९|

Dadhi Sara (scum of curds / supernatant fluid portion) is heavy (not easily digestible), aphrodisiac, mitigates vata, augments digestive fire and increases Kapha and Sukra (semen).

Asara Dadhi

दधि त्वसारं रूक्षं च ग्राहि विष्टम्भि वातलम् ||७९||
दीपनीयं लघुतरं सकषायं रुचिप्रदम् |८०|
Asara dadhi (curds devoid of its scum) is dry, withholds fluids, constipating, increases vata, is digestive, very light (very easily digestible), slightly astringent and bestows taste.

Seasons suitable and unsuitable for curd consumption

शरद्ग्रीष्मवसन्तेषु प्रायशो दधि गर्हितम् ||८०||
हेमन्ते शिशिरे चैव वर्षासु दधि शस्यते |८१|
Curds are generally unsuitable during Sarat (autumn), Grisma (summer) and Vasanta (spring) seasons, while it is suitable during Hemanta (winter), Sisira (cold –dewy season) and Varsa (rainy) seasons.
Read – 19 Ayurveda Health Tips For Rainy Season

Mastu

तृष्णाक्लमहरं मस्तु लघु स्रोतोविशोधनम् ||८१||
अम्लं कषायं मधुरमवृष्यं कफवातनुत् |
प्रह्लादनं प्रीणनं च भिनत्त्याशु मलं च तत् |
बलमावहते क्षिप्रं भक्तच्छन्दं करोति च ||८२||
Mastu (lower portion of curds diluted with water- according to Dalhana) relieves thirst and exhaustion, light and cleanses the channels in the tissues, sour, astringent and sweet in taste, non – aphrosisiac, mitigates Kapha and Vata, bestows happiness and satisfaction, breaks the hard masses of faeces quickly, bestows strength soon and produces liking of food.

Summary of group of curds

स्वाद्वम्लमत्यम्लकमन्दजातं तथा शृतक्षीरभवं सरश्च |
असारमेवं दधि सप्तधाऽस्मिन् वर्गे स्मृता मस्तुगुणास्तथैव ||८३||

Thus, in this group were described the qualities of seven substances such as- curds which are sweet, sour, very sour, Mandaka, Srtaksira bhava (prepared from boiled milk), Dadhisara, asaradhi and Mastu.

इति दधिवर्गः। 

Thus ends the group of curds

अथतक्रवर्गः।

4. Takra Varga – a group of buttermilk

अथ तक्रवर्गःतक्रं तु मधुरमम्लं कषायानुरसमुष्णवीर्यं लघुरूक्षमग्निदीपनं गरशोफातिसारग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगार्शःप्लीहगुल्मारोचकविषमज्वरतृष्णाच्छर्दिप्रसेकशूलभेदःश्लेष्मानिलहरं मधुरविपाकं हृद्यं मूत्रकृच्छ्रस्नेहव्यापत्प्रशमनमवृष्यं च ||८४||
Takra (buttermilk) is

  • sweet – sour (in primary taste) and astringent in secondary taste,
  • hot in potency,
  • light (easily digestible),
  • dry,
  • kindles digestive fire,
  • cures homicidal poisoning, dropsy, diarrhea, duodenal disease, anaemia, piles, diseases of the spleen, abdominal tumor, anorexia, intermittent fevers, thirst, vomiting, excess of salivation, colic, increase of fat, Kapha and Vata,
  • is sweet in taste and after digestion,
  • good for heart (mind),
  • relieves dysuria, disorders caused by improper administration of oleation therapy and
  • is non-aphrodisiac

मन्थनादिपृथग्भूतस्नेहमर्धोदकं च यत् |
नातिसान्द्रद्रवं तक्रं स्वाद्वम्लं तुवरं रसे |
यत्तु सस्नेहमजलं मथितं घोलमुच्यते ||८५||

Takra – is that from which fat has been separated (removed) by churning etc. and added with water, half of its quantity, which is neither too thick nor too thin liquid, sweet and sour in primary taste and astringent in secondary taste.

Ghola – is that which has fat in it (not removed) and not added with water but churned well.  Ghola means undiluted buttermilk.
Read – Buttermilk Benefits, Side Effects, Usage, Home Remedies

Contraindications for buttermilk consumption

नैव तक्रं क्षते दद्यान्नोष्णकाले न दुर्बले |
न मूर्च्छाभ्रमदाहेषु न रोगे रक्तपैत्तिके ||८६||
Takra (buttermilk) should not be consumed by patients with wounds, not during hot seasons, not by the debilitated, not by those suffering from fainting, giddiness, burning sensation and diseases caused by Rakta and Pitta.

Conditions in which use of buttermilk is good

शीतकालेऽग्निमान्द्ये च कफोत्थेष्वामयेषु च |
मार्गावरोधे दुष्टे च वायौ तक्रं प्रशस्यते ||८७||

Takra is best suited during cold seasons, weakness of digestive fire, in diseases caused by Kapha, obstruction of channels of the tissues and aggravation of Vata.

Sweet and sour buttermilk

तत् पुनर्मधुरं श्लेष्मप्रकोपणं पित्तप्रशमनं च;
अम्लं वातघ्नं पित्तकरं च ||८८||
 That which is sweet in taste aggravates Kapha and mitigates (aggravation of) pitta, and that which is sour mitigates Vata and increases Pitta.

Buttermilk in dosha aggravation

वातेऽम्लं सैन्धवोपेतं, स्वादु पित्ते सशर्करम् |
पिबेत्तक्रं कफे चापि व्योषक्षारसमन्वितम् ||८९||

In aggravation of vata, sour buttermilk should be consumed adding saindhava to it.
In aggravation of Pitta, sweet buttermilk should be consumed adding sugar.
In aggravation of Kapha, sweet buttermilk added with Vyosa and Ksara (Yavaksara) should be consumed.

Takra Kurcika

ग्राहिणी वातला रूक्षा दुर्जरा तक्रकूर्चिका |९०|
Takra kurcika (solid portion of split buttermilk) is constipating, increases Vata, dry (causes dryness) and is difficult for digestion.

Manda, Kilata, Piyusa and Morata

तक्राल्लघुतरो मण्डः कूर्चिकादधितक्रजः ||९०||
गुरुः किलाटोऽनिलहा पुंस्त्वनिद्राप्रदः स्मृतः |
मधुरौ बृंहणौ वृष्यौ तद्वत्पीयूषमोरटौ ||९१||

Manda (supernatant fluid of buttermilk) and Kurcika (fluid of curds) are lighter (easily digestible) than Takra.
Kilata (solid portion of split milk) is heavy (not easily digestible) mitigates vata, bestows sexual prowess and good sleep.
Piyusa (milk of cow just delivered to a calf till the next seven days) and Morata (thick milk till it becomes thin) are sweet, stoutening and aphrodisiac.
Read – Veg Buttermilk Stew (Temana Takra) – Qualities And Health Benefits

Navanita – Butter

नवनीतं पुनः सद्यस्कं लघु सुकुमारं मधुरं कषायमीषदम्लं शीतलं मेध्यं दीपनं हृद्यं सङ्ग्राहि पित्तानिलहरं वृष्यमविदाहि क्षयकासव्रणशोषार्शोऽर्दितापहं, चिरोत्थितं गुरु कफमेदोविवर्धनं बलकरं बृंहणं शोषघ्नं विशेषेण बालानां प्रशस्यते ||९२||
 Butter which is fresh is light (easily digested), makes the body tender (soft), is sweet, astringent and slightly sour in taste, cold in potency, good for intellect, kindles digestion, good for heart, constipating, mitigates pitta and vata, aphrodisiac, does not cause heart-burn, cures consumption, cough, emaciation from ulcers and facial paralysis. That which has become stale is heavy, increases Kapha and meda (fat) bestows strength, stoutening, cures pthisis and is beneficial to children especially.

क्षीरोत्थं पुनर्नवनीतमुत्कृष्टस्नेहमाधुर्यमतिशीतं सौकुमार्यकरं चक्षुष्यं सङ्ग्राहि रक्तपित्तनेत्ररोगहरं प्रसादनं च ||९३||

 Butter obtained from churning the milk is the best in respect of unctuousness (fat content and lubrication) and sweetness, is very cold (in potency), confers tenderness (softness) to the body, good for eye (vision), constipating, cures bleeding diseases and eye diseases and bestows brilliance to color of the skin.
Read – Butter Benefits: Ayurveda Details

Santanika

सन्तानिका पुनर्वातघ्नी तर्पणी वृष्या बल्या स्निग्धा रुच्या मधुरा मधुरविपाका रक्तपित्तप्रसादनी गुर्वी च ||९४||

Santanika (cream of milk) mitigates Vata, is nourishing, aphrodisiac, strengthening, unctuous, enhances taste, sweet both in taste and after digestion, relieves bleeding diseases and is heavy (hard for digestion).

विकल्प एष दध्यादिः श्रेष्ठो गव्योऽभिवर्णितः |
विकल्पानवशिष्टांस्तु क्षीरवीर्यात्समादिशेत् ||९५||
So far, they described the properties of curds and other products of cow milk of cow only, because of their best qualities. Products of milk of the other animals should be understood as similar to the properties of that milk.

इति तक्रवर्गः
This ends Takravarga- group of buttermilk.

अथघृतवर्गः।

 5. GhrtaVarga – Group of ghee

अथ घृतम्घृतं तु मधुरं सौम्यं मृदु शीतवीर्यमनभिष्यन्दि स्नेहनमुदावर्तोन्मादापस्मारशूलज्वरानाहवातपित्तप्रशमनमग्निदीपनं स्मृतिमतिमेधाकान्तिस्वरलावण्यसौकुमार्यौजस्तेजोबलकरमायुष्यं वृष्यं मेध्यं वयःस्थापनं गुरु चक्षुष्यं श्लेष्माभिवर्धनं पाप्मालक्ष्मीप्रशमनं विषहरं रक्षोघ्नं च ||९६||
Ghrta (ghee, butter-fat obtained by cooking butter) is sweet, mild in action, soft, cold in potency, not increasing moisture in the tissues, lubricating , relieves upward movement of vata in the alimentary tract, insanity, epilepsy, colic, fever, and distention of the abdomen, mitigates Vata and Pitta, kindles digestive fire, increases memory, wisdom, intelligence, complexion, voice, beauty, softness of  the body, vitality, vigour, strength and span life; is aphrodisiac, good for vision, increases Kapha, wards off sins and inauspiciousness, destroys poisons and demons (evil spirits, bacteria etc).

Go Ghrta – Cow’s ghee

विपाके मधुरं शीतं वातपित्तविषापहम् |
चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं बल्यं च गव्यं सर्पिर्गुणोत्तरम् ||९७||

Gavya Sarpi (ghee obtained from cows’ butter) is sweet after digestion, cold in potency, mitigates Vata, Pitta and poison, best for eyes (vision) bestows strength and very good in properties.
Read – Ghee Benefits, Usage, Side Effects, Contra Indications

 Aja ghrta – Goat’s ghee

आजं घृतं दीपनीयं चक्षुष्यं बलवर्धनम् |
कासे श्वासे क्षये चापि पथ्यं पाके च तल्लघु ||९८||

 Aja ghrta (goat’s ghee), kindles digestion, good for eyes (vision) increases strength, best suited in cough, dysnoea, and consumption and laghu vipaka (pungent after digestion).

Mahisa Ghrta: – Buffalo’s ghee

मधुरं रक्तपित्तघ्नं गुरु पाके कफावहम् |
वातपित्तप्रशमनं सुशीतं माहिषं घृतम् ||९९||
Buffalo’s ghee is sweet, cures bleeding diseases, Guru Vipaka (sweet after digestion), increases Kapha, and mitigates Vata and Pitta and is cold in potency.

Austra Ghrta – Camel’s ghee

औष्ट्रं कटु घृतं पाके शोफक्रिमिविषापहम् |
दीपनं कफवातघ्नं कुष्ठगुल्मोदरापहम् ||१००||

Camel’s ghee is pungent after digestion, cures dropsy, worms and poisons, kindles digestion, and mitigates Kapha and Vata, cures leprosy, abdominal tumors and enlargement of the abdomen.

Avika ghrta – Sheep’s ghee

पाके लघ्वाविकं सर्पिर्न च पित्तप्रकोपणम् |
कफेऽनिले योनिदोषे शोषे कम्पे च तद्धितम् ||१०१||

Sheep’s ghee is laghupaka (pungent after digestion), does not aggravate Pitta, beneficial in diseases produced by Kapha and vata, in diseases of the Vagina, consumption and tremors (shaking of the body parts).

Ekasapha prani Ghrta – Ghee of single hooved animals

पाके लघूष्णवीर्यं च कषायं कफनाशनम् |
दीपनं बद्धमूत्रं च विद्यादैकशफं घृतम् ||१०२||
Ghrta (ghee) of animals with a single hoof (horse, donkey etc) is easily digestible, hot in potency, astringent, mitigates Kapha, kindles digestion and causes obstruction of urine.

Stri ghrta – Ghee of woman

चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं स्त्रीणां तु सर्पिः स्यादमृतोपमम् |
वृद्धिं करोति देहाग्न्योर्लघुपाकं विषापहम् ||१०३||

 Ghee prepared from woman’s milk is best for the eyes (vision) just like nectar, augments digestive fire, easy for digestion and destroys poison.

Hastini Ghrta – Ghee of elephant

कषायं बद्धविण्मूत्रं तिक्तमग्निकरं लघु |
हन्ति कारेणवं सर्पिः कफकुष्ठविषक्रिमीन् ||१०४||

Ghee of elephant is astringent, relieves obstruction of faeces and urine, bitter in taste, kindles digestion, light (easy for digestion), cures diseases of Kapha origin, leprosy, poison and worms.

Ksira ghrta

क्षीरघृतं पुनः सङ्ग्राहि रक्तपित्तभ्रममूर्च्छाप्रशमनं नेत्ररोगहितं च ||१०५||

Ksira ghrta (ghee prepared by cooking butter obtained from churning milk) is constipating, relieves bleeding, giddiness and fainting and beneficial to eye diseases.
Read – Principles Of Making Herbal Ghee – Ghritham

Sarpi manda

सर्पिर्मण्डस्तु मधुरः सरो योनिश्रोत्राक्षिशिरसां शूलघ्नो बस्तिनस्याक्षिपूरणेषूपदिश्यते ||१०६||

Sarpi manda (scum / supernatant fluid) of ghee is sweet, laxative, relives the pain of vagina, ears, eyes and head and useful for therapies like enema, nasal drops and eye drops.

Purana Sarpi – Ten-year-old ghee

सर्पिः पुराणं सरं कटुविपाकं त्रिदोषापहं मूर्च्छामदोन्मादोदरज्वरगरशोषापस्मारयोनिश्रोत्राक्षिशिर शूलघ्नं दीपनं बस्तिनस्यपूरणेषूपदिश्यते ||१०७||
Old ghee is laxative, pungent after digestion, mitigates all the three Doshas, cures fainting, insanity, intoxication, enlargement of the abdomen, fevers, homicidal poisoning, consumption, epilepsy, diseases of vagina, ears, eyes and head; relieves pain, kindles digestion and useful in therapies like enema, nasal medication and filling the eyes.

भवति चात्र-
Some verses here: –

Purana, Kumbha and Maha Ghrta

पुराणं तिमिरश्वासपीनसज्वरकासनुत् |
मूर्च्छाकुष्ठविषोन्मादग्रहापस्मारनाशनम् ||१०८||
(एकादशशतं चैव वत्सरानुषितं घृतम् |
रक्षोघ्नं कुम्भसर्पिः स्यात् परतस्तु महाघृतम् ||१०९||
पेयं महाघृतं भूतैः कफघ्नं पवनाधिकैः |
बल्यं पवित्रं मेध्यं च विशेषात्तिमिरापहम् ||११०||
सर्वभूतहरं चैव घृतमेतत् प्रशस्यते) ||१११||
Old ghee cures blindness, dyspnoea, rhinitis, fever, cough, fainting, leprosy, insanity, seizure by evil spirits and epilepsy.

Ghee which is old by one hundred eleven years is known as Kumbha sarpi. It is Raksoghana (destroys demons). Ghee, still older than this ghee is known as Mahaghrta. This Mahaghrta when consumed by living beings, mitigates Kapha and Vata, bestows strength, auspiciousness, improves intelligence, cures blindness, especially destroys all kinds of demons and is extolled as highly beneficial.

इति घृतवर्गः
Thus ends Ghrtavarga- group of ghee

अथतैलवर्गः

 6. Tailavarga- Group of oils

अथ तैलानितैलं त्वाग्नेयमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं मधुरं मधुरविपाकं बृंहणं प्रीणनं व्यवायि सूक्ष्मं विशदं गुरु सरं विकासि वृष्यं त्वक्प्रसादनं मेधामार्दवमांसस्थैर्यवर्णबलकरं चक्षुष्यं बद्धमूत्रं लेखनं तिक्तकषायानुरसं पाचनमनिलबलासक्षयकरं क्रिमिघ्नमशितपित्तजननं  योनिशिरःकर्णशूलप्रशमनं गर्भाशयशोधनं च, तथा छिन्नभिन्नविद्धोत्पिष्टच्युतमथितक्षतपिच्चितभग्नस्फुटितक्षाराग्निदग्धविश्लिष्टदारिता भिहतदुर्भग्नमृगव्यालविदष्टप्रभृतिषु च परिषेकाभ्यङ्गावगाहादिषु तिलतैलं प्रशस्यते ||११२||
Taila (oil of tila-sesame seeds) is fire-like in properties, hot in potency, penetrating, sweet in taste and taste after digestion, stoutening, nourishing, spreading throughout the body quickly,  entering through minute pores, clear / dry, heavy (hard for digestion), laxative, causes looseness of the joints; is aphrodisiac, cleanses the skin, promotes intelligence, softness, stability of muscles, colors and strength of the body,  good for the eyes, causes obstruction of urine, scarifying, has bitter and astringent as secondary tastes, is digestive, decreases Vata and  Kapha, kills  worms, causes thinness of structures, produces Pitta, subsides pain of the vagina, head and ears and purifies (clears) the doshas of uterus. Tila taila (sesame oil) is best suited for pouring over (bathing the body parts), anointing, immersing the body (or its parts in oil) etc. in conditions such as different kinds of fractures like china (broken), bhinna (split), viddha (punctured), utpista (crushed), cyuta (dislocated), matitha (twisted), ksata (bruised), piccita (flattend) and  sphutia (chipped off), burns caused  by alkalies and fire, loosening (ptosis), tearing of the joints, hard hit on the joint and impacted  fractures of the joints; bites by wild animals etc.

Other uses of oil

तद्बस्तिषु च पानेषु नस्ये कर्णाक्षिपूरणे |
अन्नपानविधौ चापि प्रयोज्यं वातशान्तये ||११३||
It may also be used for enema therapy, drinking in oleation therapy, nasal medication, filling the ears and along with foods and drinks for the purpose of mitigating aggravation of vata.
Read – Ayurvedic Herbal Oil Making: Principles, Method, Examples, Demo

Eranda Taila

एरण्डतैलं मधुरमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं दीपनं कटु कषायानुरसं सूक्ष्मं स्रोतोविशोधनं त्वच्यं वृष्यं मधुरविपाकं वयःस्थापनं योनिशुक्रविशोधनमारोग्यमेधाकान्तिस्मृतिबलकरं वातकफहरमधोभागदोषहरं च ||११४||
Eranda taila (castor oil) is sweet, hot in potency, penetrating, kindles digestive fire, bitter and astringent in secondary taste, enters into minute pores, cleanses the channels (ducts in the tissues), good for the skin, aphrodisiac, sweet after digestion, withholds ageing, purifies vagina (menstrual fluid) and semen, bestows health, intelligence brilliant complexion, memory and strength, mitigates Vata and Kapha and removes the Doshas from below (produces purgation).

Anya Taila – other kinds of oil

निम्बातसीकुसुम्भमूलकजीमूतकवृक्षककृतवेधनार्ककम्पिल्लकहस्तिकर्णपृथ्वीकापीलु- करञ्जेङ्गुदीशिग्रुसर्षपसुवर्चलाविडङ्गज्योतिष्मतीफलतैलानि तीक्ष्णानि लघून्युष्णवीर्याणि कटूनि कटुविपाकानि सराण्यनिलकफकृमिकुष्ठप्रमेहशिरोरोगापहराणि चेति ||११५||
Oils obtained from the fruits (or seeds) of Nimbi, Atasi, Kusumbha, Mulaka, Jimutaka, Vrksaka, Krtavedhana, Arka, Kampillaka, Hastikarna, Prthvika, Pilu, Karanja, Ingudi, Sigru, Sarsapa, Suvarcala, Vidanga and Jyothismati – are penetrating, light (easily digestable), hot in potency, pungent both in taste and taste after digestion and laxative; cure diseases produced by Vata and Kapha, worms, leprosy, diabetes and diseases of the head.

Ksauma Taila

वातघ्नं मधुरं तेषु क्षौमं तैलं बलापहम् |
कटुपाकमचक्षुष्यं स्निग्धोष्णं गुरुपित्तलम् ||११६||

Among these, Ksauma (Atasi) taila, mitigates Vata, is sweet, destroys strength, pungent after digestion, not good for the eyes (vision), unctuous, hot in potency, hard for digestion and increases Pitta.

Sarsapa Taila

कृमिघ्नं सार्षपं तैलं कण्डूकुष्ठापहं लघु |
कफमेदोनिलहरं लेखनं कटु दीपनम् ||११७||

Sarsapa taila destroys worms (bacteria virus etc), cures itching, leprosy, light (easily digestible), mitigates Kapha, medas and Vata, scarificant, pungent in taste and kindles digestion.

Ingudi Taila

कृमिघ्नमिङ्गुदीतैलमीषत्तिक्तं तथा लघु |
कुष्ठामयकृमिहरं दृष्टिशुक्रबलापहम् ||११८||
Ingudi taila destroys worm (bacteria etc) slightly bitter in taste, easily digestible, cures leprosy, worms, decreases vision, semen and strength.

Kusumbha Taila

विपाके कटुकं तैलं कौसुम्भं सर्वदोषकृत् |
रक्तपित्तकरं तीक्ष्णमचक्षुष्यं विदाहि च ||११९||
Kusumbha Taila is pungent after digestion, causes aggravation of all the Doshas and bleeding disease, is penetrating, not good for the health of the eyes and produces heart burn.

Oils of Kiratatikta etc

किराततिक्तकातिमुक्तकबिभीतकनालिकेरकोलाक्षोडजीवन्तीप्रियालकर्बुदार- सूर्यवल्लीत्रपुसैर्वारुककर्कारुकूष्माण्डप्रभृतीनां तैलानि मधुराणि मधुरविपाकानि वातपित्तप्रशमनानि शीतवीर्याण्यभिष्यन्दीनि सृष्टमूत्राण्यग्निसादनानि चेति ||१२०||
Oils of Kiratatikta, Atimuktaka, Vibhitaka, Nalikera, Kola, Aksoda, Jivanti, Priyala, Karbudara, Suryavalli, Trapusa, Ervaruka, Karkaru, Kusmanda and such others – are of sweet taste and after digestion ; mitigate Vata and Pitta, cold in potency, produces more moisture inside  the tissues, helps elimination of urine and diminish the digestive fire.

Oils of Madhuka etc

मधूककाश्मर्यपलाशतैलानि मधुरकषायाणि कफपित्तप्रशमनानि ||१२१||
 Oils of Madhuka, Kasmarya and Palasa are of sweet and astringent tastes, mitigate Kapha and Pitta.

Oils of Tuvaraka and Bhallataka

तुवरकभल्लातकतैले उष्णे मधुरकषाये तिक्तानुरसे वातकफकुष्ठमेदोमेहकृमिप्रशमने उभयतोभागदोषहरे च ||१२२||
Oils of Tuvaraka and Bhallataka are hot in potency, sweet and astringent in primary taste and bitter in secondary taste. They cure diseases caused by Vata and Kapha; leprosy; diseases of fat, diabetes and worms and eliminate Doshas through both routes (vomiting and purgation).

Oils of Sarala etc

सरलदेवदारुशिंशपागुरुगण्डीरसारस्नेहास्तिक्तकटुकषाया दुष्टव्रणशोधनाः कृमिकफकुष्ठानिलहराश्च ||१२३||

 Oils of (pith of) Sarala, Devadaru, Simsipa, Agura and Gandira are bitter, pungent and astringent, cleanses bad ulcers, cure diseases caused by worms, cures diseases caused by Kapha and Vata and leprosy (other skin diseases).

Oils of Tumbi etc

तुम्बीकोशाम्रदन्तीद्रवन्तीश्यामासप्तलानीलिकाकम्पिल्लकशङ्खिनीस्नेहास्तिक्तकटुकषाया अधोभागदोषहराः कृमिकफकुष्ठानिलहरा दुष्टव्रणशोधनाश्च ||१२४||
Oils of Tumbi, Kosamra, Danti, Dravanti, Syama, Saptala, Nilika, Kamilaka and Sankhini are bitter, pungent and astringent in taste, eliminates doshas from below (produce purgation) cures diseases caused by worms (intestinal), Kapha, leprosy and vata and cleanses bad ulcers.

Yavatikta oil

यवतिक्तातैलं सर्वदोषप्रशमनमीषत्तिक्तमग्निदीपनं लेखनं मेध्यं पथ्यं च ||१२५||
Oil of Yavatikta mitigates all the doshas, slightly bitter, kindles digestion, sacrificing, improves intelligence and good for health.

Ekaisika oil

एकैषिकातैलं मधुरमतिशीतं पित्तहरमनिलप्रकोपणं श्लेष्माभिवर्धनं च ||१२६||
Oil of Ekaisika is sweet, very cold in potency, mitigates Pitta, aggravates Vata and increases Kapha.

Sahakara oil

सहकारतैलमीषत्तिक्तमतिसुगन्धि वातकफहरं रूक्षं मधुरकषायं रसवन्नातिपित्तकरं च ||१२७||

 Oil of Sahakara (Amra) is slightly bitter, has a very pleasant smell, mitigates Vata and Kapha, dry, sweet and astringent in taste and does not increase pitta greatly (increasing slightly).
Read – Uses of Mango Fruit, Bark, Leaves, Seeds, Recipes, Remedies, Research

फलोद्भवानि तैलानि यान्युक्तानीह कानिचित् |
गुणान् कर्म च विज्ञाय फलानीव विनिर्दिशेत् ||१२८||
Properties and actions of oils of some fruits have been described here so far; those which are not mentioned should be understood as similar to those fruits.

यावन्तः स्थावराः स्नेहाः समासात्परिकीर्तिताः |
सर्वे तैलगुणा ज्ञेयाः सर्वे चानिलनाशनाः ||१२९||
So far, it has described in brief the properties and actions of oils of the vegetable kingdom; all possess the properties of taila and all mitigate the aggravation of vata.

Why is tila taila special?

सर्वेभ्यस्त्विह तैलेभ्यस्तिलतैलं विशिष्यते |
निष्पत्तेस्तद्गुणत्वाच्च तैलत्वमितरेष्वपि ||१३०||

Among all kinds of oils described here, tila taila is special, since it is called by its source (tila) and possesses qualities similar to it. Even so, the oil of others (are also called taila generally).
Read – Sesame Oil, Coconut Oil, Castor Oil, Mustard Oil – Comparison

Jangama Sneha- Animal oil

ग्राम्यानूपौदकानां च वसामेदोमज्जानो गुरूष्णमधुरा वातघ्नाः, जाङ्गलैकशफक्रव्यादादीनां लघुशीतकषाया रक्तपित्तघ्नाः, प्रतुदविष्किराणां श्लेष्मघ्नाः |

तत्र घृततैलवसामेदोमज्जानो यथोत्तरं गुरुविपाका वातहराश्च ||१३१||
 Vasa (muscle fat), Medas (fat) and majja (bone marrow) of animals and birds living in houses, in marshy regions and in water are heavy, (hard for digestion), hot in potency, sweet and mitigate Vata.
Those (muscle fat, fat and marrow) of animals of desert like regions, single hooved and carnivorus etc. are light (easily digestible), cold in potency, astringent, mitigate Rakta and Pitta.
Those (muscle fat, fat and marrow) of Pratuda and Viskira kinds of birds, mitigate Kapha.
Ghrta (ghee), Taila (oil), Vasa (muscle fat), Medas (fat) and Majja (bone marrow) are Guruvipaka (sweet after digestion) in their successive order and mitigate Vata also.
Read – Oleation – Snehakarma Dose, Benefits, Side Effects, Management

इति तैलवर्गः|

 Thus, ends taila – group of oils

7.  Madhu Varga – group of Honey

अथ मधुवर्गःमधु तु मधुरं कषायानुरसं रूक्षं शीतमग्निदीपनं वर्ण्यं स्वर्यं लघु सुकुमारं लेखनं हृद्यं वाजीकरणं सन्धानं शोधनं रोपणं(सङ्ग्राहि) चक्षुष्यं प्रसादनं सूक्ष्ममार्गानुसारि पित्तश्लेष्ममेदोमेहहिक्काश्वासकासातिसारच्छर्दितृष्णाकृमिविषप्रशमनं ह्लादि त्रिदोषप्रशमनं च; तत्तु लघुत्वात् कफघ्नं, पैच्छिल्यान्माधुर्यात् कषायभावाच्च वातपित्तघ्नम् ||१३२||
Madhu (honey) is sweet (in primary taste) and astringent in secondary taste; dry ,cold, kindles digestion, good for color and  voice, light (easily digestible), bestows softness to the body, is scarifying, good for heart, produces virilification (aphrodisiac), unites fractures, cleanses and heals wounds; is constipating, good for vision, cleanses the eyes, enters into minute channels, mitigates Pitta, Kapha and Medas; cures diabetes, hiccup, dyspnoea, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, thirst, worms (bacteria etc) and poison; bestows happiness and mitigates all the three Doshas- mitigates Kapha by  its lightness (easy digestibility), vata  and  Pitta by sliminess, sweetness and astringency.

 Madhu Bheda – kinds of honey

पौत्तिकं भ्रामरं क्षौद्रं माक्षिकं छात्रमेव च |

आर्घ्यमौद्दालकं दालमित्यष्टौ मधुजातयः ||१३३||
Pauttika, Bhramara, Ksaudra, Maksika, Chatra, Aghrya, Auddalaka and Dala are the eight kinds of honey.

Madhu Guna- Properties of honey

विशेषात्पौत्तिकं तेषु रूक्षोष्णं सविषान्वयात् |
वातासृक्पित्तकृच्छेदि विदाहि मदकृन्मधु ||१३४||
पैच्छिल्यात् स्वादुभूयस्त्वाद्भ्रामरं गुरुसञ्ज्ञितम् |
क्षौद्रं विशेषतो ज्ञेयं शीतलं लघु लेखनम् ||१३५||
तस्माल्लघुतरं रूक्षं माक्षिकं प्रवरं स्मृतम् |
श्वासादिषु च रोगेषु प्रशस्तं तद्विशेषतः ||१३६||
स्वादुपाकं गुरु हिमं पिच्छिलं रक्तपित्तजित् |
श्वित्रमेहकृमिघ्नं च विद्याच्छात्रं गुणोत्तरम् ||१३७||
आर्घ्यं मध्वतिचक्षुष्यं कफपित्तहरं परम् |
कषायं कटु पाके च बल्यं तिक्तमवातकृत् ||१३८||
औद्दालकं रुचिकरं स्वर्यं कुष्ठविषापहम् |
कषायमम्लमुष्णं च पित्तकृत् कटुपाकि च ||१३९||
छर्दिमेहप्रशमनं मधु रूक्षं दलोद्भवम् |१४०|

Pautika honey – especially is dry, hot because of its association with poison (bees feeding on poisonous flowers also), it aggravates Vata, Rakta and Pitta, cuts the tissues, produces heart-burn and intoxication.
Bhramara honey – is heavy (not easily digestable) because of its sliminess and more of sweetness.
Ksaudra honey – is especially cold in potency, light (easyfor digestion) and scarificant.
Maksika honey – is lighter than ksaudra, dry, is best in qualities and especially beneficial in diseases like dyspnoea etc.
Chatra honey – is sweet after digestion, heavy, cold, slimy, cures bleeding diseases, leucoderma, diabetes and worms and best in qualities.
Aghrya honey – is very beneficial to the eyes, best to mitigate kapha and pitta, astringent in taste, pungent and bitter after digestion, bestows strength and does not aggravate vata.
Auddalaka honey – bestows taste, good for voice, cures leprosy (and other skin diseases) and poisons, astringent and sour in taste, hot in potency and pungent after digestion and aggravates pitta.
Dala honey – mitigates vomiting and diabetes and is dry.
Read – Honey Qualities, Usage, Remedies, Ayurvedic Benefits

Nava and Purana Madhu

Fresh and old honey

बृंहणीयं मधु नवं नातिश्लेष्महरं समम् ||१४०||
मेदःस्थौल्यापहं ग्राहि पुराणमतिलेखनम् |
दोषत्रयहरं पक्वमाममम्लं त्रिदोषकृत् ||१४१||

Fresh honey is stoutening the body, does not mitigate slesma (Kapha) very much and is moderate. Old honey reduces fat and obesity, is constipating and highly scarificant.
Pakva honey (that is preserved for many years) mitigates all three doshas while Ama (fresh raw honey) aggravates the three Dohsas.

Honey as Yogavahi

तद्युक्तं विविधैर्योगैर्निहन्यादामयान् बहून् |
नानाद्रव्यात्मकत्वाच्च योगवाहि परं मधु ||१४२||

Used along with different medical formulae, it cures many diseases, because of being formed from many substances, honey is the best yogavani.
Notes: -Yogavahi is defined as that substance which enhance the properties and actions of the substances with which it combines.

Honey and Heat

तत्तु नानाद्रव्यरसगुणवीर्यविपाकविरुद्धानां पुष्परसानां मक्षिकासम्भवत्वाच्चानुष्णोपचारम् ||१४३||
उष्णैर्विरुध्यते सर्वं विषान्वयतया मधु |
उष्णार्तमुष्णैरुष्णे वा तन्निहन्ति यथा विषम् ||१४४||
तत्सौकुमार्याच्च तथैव शैत्यान्नानौषधीनां रससम्भवाच्च |
उष्णैर्विरुध्येत विशेषतश्च तथाऽन्तरीक्षेण जलेन चापि ||१४५||

Since it (honey) is produced by the bees out of flowers which are different from one another in respect of their material, tastes, qualities, potency and taste after digestion, it should not be exposed to heat (cooked).
Being associated with poison, honey is especially incompatible with heat. If used by persons suffering from diseases of heat (caused by heat) or used mixed with hot things (foods or drugs of hot potency) and during hot seasons it kills them just like poison.
Because of softness, coldness and being produced by the juice of many plants, honey is incompatable with hot things especially, so also, even with rain water (which is cold).
Read – Hot Water Honey Benefits, Limitations, Remedies

उष्णेन मधु संयुक्तं वमनेष्ववचारितम् |
अपाकादनवस्थानान्न विरुध्येत पूर्ववत् ||१४६||
मध्वामात्परतस्त्वन्यदामं कष्टं न विद्यते |
विरुद्धोपक्रमत्वात्तत् सर्वं हन्ति यथा विषम् ||१४७||
Though honey is administered combined with drugs of hot potency to produce vomiting, it does not become incompatable then, since it is not being digested and not staying long inside.

No other kinds of indigestion are more difficult to treat than that caused by honey. Because of the need of opposite kinds of treatment, it (indigestion from honey) kills all just like poison.

इति मधुवर्गः
Thus ends Madhu varga- group of honeys

अथेक्षुवर्गः

8. Iksu varga – group of sugarcanes (and their juices)

इक्षवो मधुरा मधुरविपाका गुरवः शीताः स्निग्धा बल्या वृष्या मूत्रला रक्तपित्तप्रशमनाः कृमिकफकराश्चेति |
Iksu (sugarcane) is sweet in taste and even after digestion, heavy (not easily digestable), cold in potency, unctuous, strengthening, aphrodisiac, diuretic, mitigates bleeding disease and gives rise to worms and increase of kapha.

ते चानेकविधाः |
तद्यथा- ||१४८||
पौण्ड्रको भीरुकश्चैव वंशकः श्वेतपोरकः|
कान्तारस्तापसेक्षुश्च काष्ठेक्षुः सूचिपत्रकः ||१४९||
नैपालो दीर्घपत्रश्च नीलपोरोऽथ कोशकृत् |
इत्येता जातयः स्थौल्याद्, … |१५०|
It is of many Kinds such as Paundraka, Bhiruka, Vamsaka, Svetaporaka (sataporaka), Kantara, Tapaseksu, Kastheksu, (Kandeksu), Sucipatraka, Naipala, Dirghapaaatra, Nilapora, Kosakrt (Kosakara)- are its kinds broadly.

… गुणान् वक्ष्याम्यतः परम् ||१५०||
सुशीतो मधुरः स्निग्धो बृंहणः श्लेष्मलः सरः |
अविदाही गुरुर्वृष्यः पौण्ड्रको भीरुकस्तथा ||१५१||
आभ्यां तुल्यगुणः किञ्चित्सक्षारो वंशको मतः |
वंशवच्छ्वेतपोरस्तु किञ्चिदुष्णः स वातहा ||१५२||
कान्तारतापसाविक्षू वंशकानुगतौ मतौ |
एवङ्गुणस्तु काष्ठेक्षुः स तु वातप्रकोपणः ||१५३||
सूचीपत्रो नीलपोरौ नैपालो दीर्घपत्रकः |
वातलाः कफपित्तघ्नाः सकषाया विदाहिनः ||१५४||
कोशकारो गुरुः शीतो रक्तपित्तक्षयापहः |१५५|
Further, we will describe their properties.

Paundraka and Bhiruka – are greatly cold in potency, sweet, unctuous, produce stoutness, aggravates Kapha, laxative, not produce heart burn, heavy and aphrodisiac.
Vamsaka – is slightly inferor than the above two, is slightly alkaline in taste.
Svetapora – is similar to Vamsaka in poroperties, is slightly hot in potency and mitigates Vata.
Kantara and Tapaseksu – are next inferior to Vamsaka.
Kastheksu (Kandeksu) – is also similar in qualities and it aggravates Vata.
Sucipatra, Nilapora, Naipala and Dirghapatraka – increase vata, mitigate Kapha and Pitta, slightly astringent and produce heart burn.
Kosakara – is heavy (hard for digestion), cold in potency and cures bleeding disease and consumption.
Read – Sugarcane Juice And Root Benefits, Side Effects, Research, Remedies

Iksu rasa Guna- Properties of sugarcane juice

अतीव मधुरो मूले मध्ये मधुर एव तु ||१५५||
अग्रेष्वक्षिषु विज्ञेय इक्षूणां लवणो रसः ||१५६||
अविदाही कफकरो वातपित्तनिवारणः |
वक्त्रप्रह्लादनो वृष्यो दन्तनिष्पीडितो रसः ||१५७||

Sugar cane is very sweet at its root (lower portion), moderately sweet in the middle and of salty in its tip (upper portion) and joints.
Juice obtained by chewing the cane, does not cause heart burn, increases Kapha, mitigates vata and Pitta, aphrodisiac and cleanses the mouth.

गुरुर्विदाही विष्टम्भी यान्त्रिकस्तु प्रकीर्तितः |१५८|
पक्वो गुरुः सरः स्निग्धः सतीक्ष्णः कफवातनुत् ||१५८||

Juice obtained by crushing the cane by machine is heavy, produces burning sensation inside, and causes constipation.
Juice which is boiled is heavy (not easily digestable), laxative, unctuous, penetrating and mitigates Kapha ana Vata.

Phanita – Molasses

फाणितं गुरु मधुरमभिष्यन्दि बृंहणमवृष्यं त्रिदोषकृच्च ||१५९||
Phanita (half-cooked jaggery) is hard for digestion, sweet, increases moisture inside the tissues, stoutening, non-aphrodisiac and aggravates all the three Doshas.

Guda – Jaggery /treacle

गुडः सक्षारमधुरो नातिशीतः स्निग्धो मूत्ररक्तशोधनो नातिपित्तजिद्वातघ्नो मेदःकृमिकफकरो बल्यो वृष्यश्च ||१६०||
पित्तघ्नो मधुरः शुद्धो वातघ्नोऽसृक्प्रसादनः |१६१|
सपुराणोऽधिकगुणो गुडः पथ्यतमः स्मृतः ||१६१||

Guda (juice well cooked and allowed to solidify) is sweet and slighty alkaline, not very cold, unctuous, cleanses urine and blood, not mitigating pitta effectively but mitigating Vata; gives rise to fat, worms (intestinal) and kapha, strengthens the body and aphrodisiac.
Sudhdha guda (purified jaggery which is white) mitigates Pitta, and vata, sweet in taste and purifies the blood.
Purana Guda (old jaggery) is superior in qualities and said to be very suitable for health.

Matsyandika, Khanda and Sarkara

मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्करा विमलजाता उत्तरोत्तरं शीताः स्निग्धाः गुरुतरा मधुरतरा वृष्या रक्तपित्तप्रशमनास्तृष्णाप्रशमनाश्च ||१६२||
Matsyandika, Khanda and Sarkara- are prepared from purified cane juice, are cold (in potency), unctuous, more sweet and heavier in successive order, aphrodisiac, mitigates bleeding disease and thirst.

Notes: -Matsyandika is un-crystallised sugar. Khanda is hard, solid sugar made either white or red in colour. Sarkara is the popular crystal sugar.

यथा यथैषां वैमल्यं मधुरत्वं तथा तथा |
स्नेहगौरवशैत्यानि सरत्वं च तथा तथा ||१६३||

The sweetness of these is according to their purity, so also their unctuousness, heaviness, coldness and laxitiveness.

यो यो मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्कराणां स्वको गुणः |
तेन तेनैव निर्देश्यस्तेषां विस्रावणो गुणः ||१६४||
Which ever are the own (natural) qualities of Mastyandika, khanda and Sarkara, the same should be considered as the qualities of their visravana (the liquid part coming when they dissolve or when they are dissolved in liquids to form syrup etc).

सारस्थिता सुविमला निःक्षारा च यथा यथा |
तथा गुणवती सर्वा विज्ञेया शर्करा बुधैः ||१६५||

 As and how sugars are full of essence, clean and devoid of alkaline taste, they are superior in qualities, so far, so understood by the wise.

Madhu sarkara – Sugar of honey

मधुशर्करा पुनश्छर्द्यतीसारहरी रूक्षा छेदनी प्रसादनी
कषायमधुरा मधुरविपाका च ||१६६||

Madhusarkara (solidified honey forming crystals) cures vomiting and diarrhea, is dry, tears the tissues, and cleanses the tissues, astringent-sweet in taste and sweet after digestion.

Yavasa sarkara – sugar from yavasa plant

यवासशर्करा मधुरकषाया तिक्तानुरसा श्लेष्महरी सरा चेति ||१६७||
Yavasa sarkara is sweet – astringent in primary taste, bitter in secondary taste, mitigates slesma (kapha) and is laxative.

Notes: -Dalhana says – Yavasasarkara is prepared from boiling the decoction of Yavasa plant till it becomes solid.

यावत्यः शर्कराः प्रोक्ताः सर्वा दाहप्रणाशनाः |
रक्तपित्तप्रशमनाश्छर्दिमूर्च्छातृषापहाः ||१६८||

All the sugars described so far are said to be mitigating burning sensation, bleeding diseases and curing vomiting, fainting and thirst.

Madhukapuspa phanita

रूक्षं मधूकपुष्पोत्थं फाणितं वातपित्तकृत् |
कफघ्नं मधुरं पाके कषायं बस्तिदूषणम् ||१६९||
Phanita (molasses / jelly) prepared from flowers of Madhuka tree is dry, increases Vata and pitta, mitigates Kapha, sweet in taste and astringent after digestion and vitiates the urinary bladder (causes aggravation of doshas there).

इतीक्षुवर्गः
Thus ends Iksu- Varga- group of sugarcane.

9. Madya varga – Group of wines

अथ मद्यवर्गःसर्वं पित्तकरं मद्यमम्लं रोचनदीपनम् |
भेदनं कफवातघ्नं हृद्यं बस्तिविशोधनम् ||१७०||
पाके लघु विदाह्युष्णं तीक्ष्णमिन्द्रियबोधनम् |
विकासि सृष्टविण्मूत्रं… |१७१|
All kinds of wines increase Pitta, are sour, improve taste, kindle digestion, laxative, mitigate Kapha and Vata, good for heart (or mind) and cleanse the bladder.

Laghu Paka (pungent after digestion) causes heartburn, hot in potency, penetrating into the tissues, stimulates the sense organs, causes loosening of the Joints and eliminates faeces and urine.

Mardvika – wine from grapes

… शृणु तस्य विशेषणम् ||१७१||
मार्द्वीकमविदाहित्वान्मधुरान्वयतस्तथा |
रक्तपित्तेऽपि सततं बुधैर्न प्रतिषिध्यते ||१७२||
मधुरं तद्धि रूक्षं च कषायानुरसं लघु |
लघुपाकि सरं शोषविषमज्वरनाशनम् ||१७३||

Now listen to its different kinds. Madhvika (wine prepared from fruits), since it does not produce heartburn and is produced by sweet tasting substances, the wise physicians do not prohibit its use always, even in bleeding disease. It is sweet in primary taste and astringent in secondary taste, dry, light (easily digesble), laghuPaka (pungent after digestion), laxative, cures consumption and intermittent fevers.
Read – Wine Qualities, Benefits, Remedies, Side Effects

Kharjura – wine from dates

मार्द्वीकाल्पान्तरं किञ्चित् खार्जूरं वातकोपनम् |
तदेव विशदं रुच्यं कफघ्नं कर्शनं लघु ||१७४||
कषायमधुरं हृद्यं सुगन्धीन्द्रियबोधनम् |१७५|
Kharjura (wine prepared from dates) is slightly inferior than mardvika, aggravates Vata, is non-slimy, improves taste, mitigates Kapha, makes the body thin, light (easily digestible), astringent-sweet in taste, good for heart (or mind), has pleasant smell and stimulates the sense organs.

Sura – Red beer

कासार्शोग्रहणीदोषमूत्राघातानिलापहा ||१७५||
स्तन्यरक्तक्षयहिता सुरा बृंहणदीपनी |१७६|
Sura cures cough, piles, duodenal diseases, suppression of urine and aggravation of Vata, beneficial in case of decrease of breast milk and blood, is stoutening and kindles digestion.

Svetasura – White beer

कासार्शोग्रहणीश्वासप्रतिश्यायविनाशनी ||१७६||
श्वेता मूत्रकफस्तन्यरक्तमांसकरी सुरा |१७७|
Sveta sura (white coloured beer) cures cough, piles, duodenal disease, dyspnoea and nasal catarrah, increases urine, Kapha, breastmilk, blood and muscles.

Prasanna – Scum of beer

छर्द्यरोचकहृत्कुक्षितोदशूलप्रमर्दनी ||१७७||
प्रसन्ना कफवातार्शोविबन्धानाहनाशनी |१७८|
Prasanna (suprenantant fluid of beer) cures vomiting, loss of taste, pain of the heart and abdomen, mitigates Kapha and vata, cures piles, constipation and distention of the abdomen.

Yava Sura – Beer made from barley

पित्तलाऽल्पकफा रूक्षा यवैर्वातप्रकोपणी |१७८|
विष्टम्भिनी सुरा गुर्वी… ||१७९||

Yava sura (beer made from barley) increases Pitta and kapha slightly, dry, aggravates Vata and is constipating.

Madhulaka and Aksika – Beer from wheat and Aksa

… श्लेष्मलं तु मधूलकम् ||१७८||
रूक्षा नातिकफा वृष्या पाचनी चाक्षिकी स्मृता ||१७९||

त्रिदोषो भेद्यवृष्यश्च कोहलो वदनप्रियः |१८०|

Madhulaka (beer prepared from small wheat) increases Kapha; that prepared from the fruit of Aksa (Vibhitaka) is dry, does not increase Kapha greatly, is aphrodisiac and digestive.

Kohala (beer prepared from barley flour) increases all three Dosas, mild purgative, non-aphrodisac and desirable to the mouth (very tasty).

Jagala and Bakkasa- precipitate of wine

ग्राह्युष्णो जगलः पक्ता रूक्षस्तृट्कफशोफकृत् ||१८०||
हृद्यः प्रवाहिकाटोपदुर्नामानिलशोषहृत् |
बक्कसो हृतसारत्वाद्विष्टम्भी वातकोपनः ||१८१||
दीपनः सृष्टविण्मूत्रो विशदोऽल्पमदो गुरुः |१८२|

Jagala – is constipating, hot in potency, digestive, produces dryness and thirst, increases Kapha and swelling, good for the heart, cures dysentery, gurgling noise in the abdomen, piles, disorders of vata and consumption.

Bakkasa – Because of devoid of essence, Bakkasa (the solid precipitate) produces stasis of food for long time (or stays long without undergoing digestion), aggravates vata, kindles digestion, helps elimination of urine of faeces, is nonslimy, slightly intoxicating and heavy (hard for digestion).

 Sidhu- Fermented liquors

कषायो मधुरः शीधुर्गौडः पाचनदीपनः ||१८२||
शार्करो मधुरो रुच्यो दीपनो बस्तिशोधनः |
वातघ्नो मधुरः पाके हृद्य इन्द्रियबोधनः ||१८३||

Sidhu prepared with Guda (jaggery) is astringent – sweet in taste, digestive and kindles digestion.
Sidhu prepared with sugar is sweet, help taste, kindles digestion, cleanses the urinary bladder, mitigates aggravation of vata, sweet after digestion, good for heart (or mind) and stimulates the sense organs.

Pakvarasa Sidhu

तद्वत् पक्वरसः शीधुर्बलवर्णकरः सरः |
शोफघ्नो दीपनो हृद्यो रुच्यः श्लेष्मार्शसां हितः ||१८४||

Pakva rasa sidhu – prepared by boiling sugarcane juice similar to its (sidhu prepared with Sugar) bestows strength, color to the skin, is laxative, cures swelling, kindles digestion, good for heart (or mind) helps taste and beneficial for piles produced by kapha.

Sitarasika

कर्शनः शीतरसिकः श्वयथूदरनाशनः |
वर्णकृज्जरणः स्वर्यो विबन्धघ्नोऽर्शसां हितः ||१८५||
Sitarasika prepared from unboiled sugarcane juice produces emaciation, cures dropsy, enlargement of the abdomen; bestows color to the skin, is digestive, good for voice, cures constipation and good for piles.

Aksika Sidhu

आक्षिकः पाण्डुरोगघ्नो व्रण्यः सङ्ग्राहको लघुः |
कषायमधुरः सीधुः पित्तघ्नोऽसृक्प्रसादनः ||१८६||

Aksika sidhu (beer prepared from Vibhitaka) cures anaemia, good for healing of ulcers, is constipating, easily digestible, astringent, and sweet in taste, mitigates pitta and purifies blood.

Jambava

जाम्बवो बद्धनिस्यन्दस्तुवरो वातकोपनः |१८७|
Jambava – sidhu-beer prepared from Jambuphala cause obstruction to urination, astringent in taste and aggravates vata.

Surasava

तीक्ष्णः सुरासवो हृद्यो मूत्रलः कफवातनुत् ||१८७||
मुखप्रियः स्थिरमदो विज्ञेयोऽनिलनाशनः |१८८|
Surasava – (wine prepared by fermenting beer) is penetrating, good for heart (or mind) diuretic, mitigates kapha and vata, tasty, produces deep intoxication and mitigates vata aggravation.

Madhvasava

लघुर्मध्वासवश्छेदी मेहकुष्ठविषापहः ||१८८||
तिक्तः कषायः शोफघ्नस्तीक्ष्णः स्वादुरवातकृत् |१८९|

Madhvasava – (wine prepared from honey) is light (easily digestable), tears the tissues, cures diabetes, leprosy (and other skin diseases) and poison, bitter and astringent in taste, cures dropsy, is penetrating, sweet in taste and aggravates vata slightly.

Maireya

तीक्ष्णः कषायो मदकृद्दुर्नामकफगुल्महृत् ||१८९||
कृमिमेदोनिलहरो मैरेयो मधुरो गुरुः |१९०|
Maireya (prepared by fermenting a mixture of sura and Asava) is penetrating astringent, intoxicating, cures piles and abdominal tumor of kapha origin, worms, obesity and aggravation of Vata, is sweet in taste and heavy (hard for digestion).

Iksurasa Asava

बल्यः पित्तहरो वर्ण्यो हृद्यश्चेक्षुरसासवः ||१९०||
Iksurasa Asava (prepared from sugarcane juice) is strengthens, mitigates pitta, and bestows color and is good for the heart (or mind).

Madhuka Puspa Sidhu

शीधुर्मधूकपुष्पोत्थो विहाह्यग्निबलप्रदः |
रूक्षः कषायः कफहृद्वातपित्तप्रकोपणः ||१९१||

Madhuka puspa sidhu – (beer prepared from flowers of Madhuka tree) produces heartburn, strengthens digestive power, dry, astringent, mitigates Kapha and aggravates vata and pitta.

निर्दिशेद्रसतश्चान्यान् कन्दमूलफलासवान् |१९२|
Properties of other kinds of Asava prepared from tubers, Rhizomes, fruits etc. should be understood by their tastes.

Nava Purana Madya Guna

Properties of fresh and old wine

नवं मद्यमभिष्यन्दि गुरु वातादिकोपनम् ||१९२||
अनिष्टगन्धि विरसमहृद्यं च विदाहि च |१९३|
Nava Madya (wine freshly prepared) increases moisture in the tissues, is hard for digestion, aggravates Vata and other Doshas, possesses unpleasant odour and taste, not good for the heart (or mind) and causes heartburn.

सुगन्धि दीपनं हृद्यं रोचिष्णु कृमिनाशनम् ||१९३||
स्फुटस्रोतस्करं जीर्णं लघु वातकफापहम् |१९४|
Jirna (purana) Madya (wine old by many years) has pleasant odour, kindles digestion, good for heart (or mind) helps taste, destroys worms, dilates the channels of tissues, light (is easily digestible) and mitigates vata and kapha.

 Arista – fermented decoction

अरिष्टो द्रव्यसंयोगसंस्कारादधिको गुणैः ||१९४||
बहुदोषहरश्चैव दोषाणां शमनश्च सः |
दीपनः कफवातघ्नः सरः पित्ताविरोधनः ||१९५||
शूलाध्मानोदरप्लीहज्वराजीर्णार्शसां हितः |१९६|

Being prepared from combination of many substances (drugs etc) and processings (boiling, fileration, fermentation etc) Arista is superior in properties (than Asava etc), cures many diseases and mitigates the doshas, kindles digestion, mitigates Kapha and vata, is laxative, not against pitta, beneficial in abdominal pain (colic), flatulence / distension of abdomen, enlargement of the abdomen, disorders of the spleen, indigestion, fever and piles.

पिप्पल्यादिकृतो गुल्मकफरोगहरः स्मृतः ||१९६||
चिकित्सितेषु वक्ष्यन्तेऽरिष्टा रोगहराः पृथक् |१९७|

That prepared from drugs of PippalyadiGana cures abdominal tumors and diseases of Kapha origin.

Aristas which are meant to cure diseases will be described in cikitsa sthana (section 4).

अरिष्टासवशीधूनां गुणान् कर्माणि चादिशेत् ||१९७||
बुद्ध्या यथास्वं संस्कारमवेक्ष्य कुशलो भिषक् |१९८|
The intelligent physician should use Aristas, Asavas and Sidhus understanding their properties and actions, after considering the mode of their preparation.

Madya Dosas – demerits of wines etc

सान्द्रं विदाहि दुर्गन्धं विरसं कृमिलं गुरु ||१९८||
अहृद्यं तरुणं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं दुर्भाजनस्थितम् |
अल्पौषधं पर्युषितमत्यच्छं पिच्छिलं च यत् ||१९९||
तद्वर्ज्यं सर्वथा मद्यं किञ्चिच्छेषं तु यद्भवेत् |
तत्र यत् स्तोकसम्भारं तरुणं पिच्छिलं गुरु ||२००||
कफप्रकोपि तन्मद्यं दुर्जरं च विशेषतः |
पित्तप्रकोपि बहलं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं विदाहि च ||२०१||
अहृद्यं पेलवं पूति कृमिलं विरसं च यत् |
तथा पर्युषितं चापि विद्यादनिलकोपनम् ||२०२||
सर्वदोषैरुपेतं तु सर्वदोषप्रकोपणम् |२०३|
That wine or any alcoholic drink which is thick, causing heartburn, bad smelling, of bad taste, containing worms, hard for digestion, unpleasant (for heart), fresh, penetrating, hot, preserved in a bad container, prepared with less of drugs, which is stale (become sour), very thin / clear, slimy and which has a residue should be rejected for all purposes.
That which is prepared with less of drugs, fresh, slimy and heavy aggravates kapha especially and is difficult to digest.
That which is thick, penetrating, hot, causing heartburn, unpleasant, pale, bad smelling, containing worms and having bad taste, aggravates pitta.
Similarly, that which is having these bad qualities and is also stale aggravates vata.
That having all the dermerits is going to aggravate all the doshas.

Madya guna – merit of wine

चिरस्थितं जातरसं दीपनं कफवातजित् ||२०३||
रुच्यं प्रसन्नं सुरभि मद्यं सेव्यं मदावहम् |
तस्यानेकप्रकारस्य मद्यस्य रसवीर्यतः ||२०४||
सौक्ष्म्यादौष्ण्याच्च तैक्ष्ण्याच्च विकासित्वाच्च वह्निना समेत्य हृदयं प्राप्य धमनीरूर्ध्वमागतम् |
विचाल्येन्द्रियचेतांसि वीर्यं मदयतेऽचिरात् ||२०५||
चिरेण श्लैष्मिके पुंसि पानतो जायते मदः |
अचिराद्वातिके दृष्टः, पैत्तिके शीघ्रमेव च ||२०६||

That wine which has stayed long (after preparation), attained good taste, which kindles digestion, mitigates kapha and Vata, bestows taste, is clear and has pleasant odour-should be consumed for obtaining happiness.

Wines of different kinds, by their properties of tastes, potencies, ability to enter into minute pores, hot, penetrating and loosening the joints, combine with digestive fire, reaches the heart and through the dhamanis (blood vessels), spread upwards, perturbs (disturbs, agitates) the senses and mind (interferes with their work) and brings about intoxication quickly.

Effect of Madya on various temperaments

सात्त्विके शौचदाक्षिण्यहर्षमण्डनलालसः |
गीताध्ययनसौभाग्यसुरतोत्साहकृन्मदः ||२०७||
राजसे दुःखशीलत्वमात्मत्यागं ससाहसम् |
कलहं सानुबन्धं तु करोति पुरुषे मदः ||२०८||
अशौचनिद्रामात्सर्यागम्यागमनलोलताः |
असत्यभाषणं चापि कुर्याद्धि तामसे मदः ||२०९||    

In persons of Satvika temperament, it (wine) produces actions such as cleanliness, courteousness, interest in music, study, acquisition of wealth and great enthusiasm for copulation.
In persons of Rajasa temperament, it produces capacity to bear (withstand) miseries, pain etc. attempts of self sacrifice, dangerous adventures and long continuing quarrels.
In persons of tamasa temperament, it (wine) gives rise to uncleanliness, more sleep, jealousy, desire for indulging in forbidden activities and speaking untruth.
Read – Satva, Rajas, Tamas as per Ayurveda

Sukta- properties of vinegar

रक्तपित्तकरं शुक्तं छेदनं भुक्तपाचनम् |
वैस्वर्यं जरणं श्लेष्मपाण्डुक्रिमिहरं लघु ||२१०||

तीक्ष्णोष्णं मूत्रलं हृद्यं कफघ्नं कटुपाकि च |
तद्वत्तदासुतं सर्वं रोचनं च विशेषतः ||२११||

Sukta gives rise to bleeding diseases, tears off the tissues, digests the food, causes disorders of voice, is digestive, mitigates kapha, anemia and destroys worms, light (easily digestible), penetrating, hot, produces (expels) urine, good for heart, destroys morbid kapha and is pungent after digestion.  

All asavas (fermented liquids) prepared from this (sukta) are similar to it in properties and especially improves taste.

गौडानि रसशुक्तानि मधुशुक्तानि यानि च |
यथापूर्वं गुरुतराण्यभिष्यन्दकराणि च ||२१२||
Sukta prepared using guda (jaggery) rasa (sugarcane juice) or madhu (honey) are more heavy (hard for digestion) and increase moisture in the tissues in their preceding order.

Tusambu- Sauviraka

तुषाम्बु दीपनं हृद्यं हृत्पाण्डुकृमिरोगनुत् |
ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नं भेदि सौवीरकं तथा ||२१३||
Tusambu, kindles digestion, good for heart (or mind), cures diseases of the heart, anaemia and worms, duodenal disease and piles and is purgative, similarly is sauviraka.

 Notes: –
Tusambu and Sauviraka are fermented liquids prepared by using husk of corn like barely etc.

Dhanyamla

धान्याम्लं धान्ययोनित्वाज्जीवनं दाहनाशनम् |
स्पर्शात् पानात्तु पवनकफतृष्णाहरं लघु ||२१४|
तैक्ष्ण्याच्च निर्हरेदाशु कफं गण्डूषधारणात् |
मुखवैरस्यदौर्गन्ध्यमलशोषक्लमापहम् ||२१५||
दीपनं जरणं भेदि हितमास्थापनेषु च |
समुद्रमाश्रितानां च जनानां सात्म्यमुच्यते ||२१६||

Dhanyamla, being prepared by corns (such as rice, jowar, millets etc)

  • is sustainer of life, mitigate burning sensation by touch (anointing, bath etc) and
  • by drinking mitigates vata, kapha and thirst, is easy for digestion;
  • by its penetrating action it eliminates kapha;
  • by holding it in the mouth removes bad taste, bad smell, dirt, dryness and exhaustion, kindles digestion; it is digestive, purgative ideal for decoction enema and suitable for constant use by persons depending on the sea (fishmen, navigators, sailors etc)

इति मध्यवर्गः
Thus ends Madya varga- groups of wines.

10. Mutra varga – group of urines

अथ मूत्राणिमूत्राणि गोमहिष्यजाविगजहयखरोष्ट्राणां तीक्ष्णान्युष्णानि कटूनि तिक्तानि लवणानुरसानि लघूनि शोधनानि कफवातकृमिमेदोविषगुल्मार्शदरकुष्ठशोफारोचकपाण्डुरोगहराणि हृद्यानि दीपनानि च सामान्यतः ||२१७||
Mutra (urine) of cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, elephant, horse, donkey and camel- are penetrating, hot in potency, pungent, bitter in primary taste and salty in secondary taste, light (easily digestible), purifies (produce vomiting and purgating), cure diseases of kapha and Vata origin, worms (Bacteria, virus etc), fat, poison, abdominal tumors, piles, enlargement of the abdomen, leprosy, (and other skin diseases) dropsy, loss of taste, appetite and anaemia, are good for heart and kindle digestion generally.

 Some verses here: –

भवतश्चात्र-
तत् सर्वं कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णं लवणानुरसं लघु |
शोधनं कफवातघ्नं कृमिमेदोविषापहम् ||२१८||
अर्शोजठरगुल्मघ्नं शोफारोचकनाशनम् |
पाण्डुरोगहरं भेदि हृद्यं दीपनपाचनम् ||२१९||
 All these (urines) are pungent, penetrating, hot, have astringent as secondary taste, easily digestable, purifies the body, mitigates kapha and Vata, cures worms, fat (accumulation), poison, piles, abdominal enlargement, abdominal tumors, distension of abdomen, dropsy, loss of taste, anaemia, cause purgation, good for heart, kindle digestion fire (power) and are digestive.
Read – Urine In Ayurveda – Functions, Importance, Pathology, Treatment

Go mutra – cow’s urine

गोमूत्रं कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णं सक्षारत्वान्न वातलम् |
लघ्वग्निदीपनं मेध्यं पित्तलं कफवातनुत् ||२२०||
शूलगुल्मोदरानाहविरेकास्थापनादिषु |
मूत्रप्रयोगसाध्येषु गव्यं मूत्रं प्रयोजयेत् ||२२१||
 Go mutra (cow’s urine) is pungent, penetrating, hot in potency, in view of its alkaline property it does not increase Vata; easily digestible, kindles digestion, improves intellect, increases pitta, mitigates kapha and vata; it is used in diseases (to cure) like colic, abdominal tumor, enlargement of the abdomen and flatulence, for therapies such as purgation, decoction enema etc; in diseases which are mentioned as curable by urines, there, cow’s urine only should be used.

Mahisa Mutra

दुर्नामोदरशूलेषु कुष्ठमेहाविशुद्धिषु |
आनाहशोफगुल्मेषु पाण्डुरोगे च माहिषम् ||२२२||

Buffalo’s urine should be used in diseases like piles, enlargement of the abdomen, colic, leprosy, (and other skin diseases), diabetes; in those who have not been given purificatory therapies, distention of the abdomen, dropsy, abdominal tumors and anameia.

Chaga Mutra

कासश्वासापहं शोफकामलापाण्डुरोगनुत् |
कटुतिक्तान्वितं छागमीषन्मारुतकोपनम् ||२२३||
Goat’s urine cures cough, dyspnoea, dropsy, Jaundice and anaemia; is pungent and bitter and aggravates vata slightly.

Avi Mutra

कासप्लीहोदरश्वासशोषवर्चोग्रहे हितम् |
सक्षारं तिक्तकटुकमुष्णं वातघ्नमाविकम् ||२२४||
Sheep’s urine cures cough, splenomegaly, dysponea, consumption and constipation; it is slightly alkaline, bitter and pungent, hot in potency and mitigates Vata.

Asva Mutra

दीपनं कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णं वातचेतोविकारनुत् |
आश्वं कफहरं मूत्रं कृमिदद्रुषु शस्यते ||२२५||

Horse’s urine kindles digestion, is pungent, penetrating, and hot, cures diseases of the mind, and mitigates Kapha, beneficial in worms (bacterial) and skin rashes.

Nagam Mutram

सतिक्तं लवणं भेदि वातघ्नं पित्तकोपनम् |
तीक्ष्णं क्षारे किलासे च नागं मूत्रं प्रयोजयेत् ||२२६||
Elephant’s urine is slightly bitter and salty, is purgative, mitigates Vata aggravates pitta, penetrates, and is best for ksara karma (treatment using alkali) and treatment of leucoderma.

Gardabha Mutram

गरचेतोविकारघ्नं तीक्ष्णं ग्रहणिरोगनुत् |
दीपनं गार्दभं मूत्रं कृमिवातकफापहम् ||२२७||
Donkey’s urine cures diseases of homicidal poisoning, mental diseases, is penetrating, cures duodenal diseases, kindles digestion, cures diseases caused by worms, Vata and kapha.

Karabha Mutra / Manusha Mutra

शोफकुष्ठोदरोन्मादमारुतक्रिमिनाशनम् |
अर्शोघ्नं कारभं मूत्रं मानुषं च विषापहम् ||२२८||
Camel’s urine cures dropsy, leprosy (and other skin diseases), enlargement of the abdomen, insanity, aggravation of Vata, worms and piles and also poison.
Read – Cow Urine Therapy Benefits, Research, Precautions

Human urine – Mitigates diseases caused by poison

द्रवद्रव्याणि सर्वाणि समासात् कीर्तितानि तु |
कालदेशविभागज्ञो नृपतेर्दातुमर्हति ||२२९||
So far were described in brief, all kinds of liquid substances. The physician may administer these to be king, after considering the time, habitat and other factors.

इति श्रीसुश्रुतसंहिताया सूत्रस्थाने द्रवद्रव्यविज्ञानीयोनामपञ्च चत्वारिंशोऽध्यायः॥४५॥
Thus ends the Forthy fifth chapter by name Dravadravya Vidhi in Sutra sthana of Susruta Samhita.





Source link

admin
      THE HEALTH & WEIGHT LOSE GURU
      Logo