Sushruta Samhita Chapter 44 Virechanadravya Vikalpa Vijnaniya Adhyaya


This article explains Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 44 “Virechanadravya Vikalpa Vijnaniya Adhyaya” – Knowledge of preparing emetic recipes.

Virechanadravya vikalpa Vijnaniya- Knowledge of preparing purgative recipes

अथातो विरेचनद्रव्यविकल्पविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ||२||
We will now expound the chapter by name Virechana dravya  Vikalpa Vijnaniya – knowledge of preparing recipes from purgative drugs, as revealed by the venerable Dhanvantari.
Read – Lord Dhanwantari ‘The God of Ayurveda’

Virechana dravya – Purgative drugs

अरुणाभं त्रिवृन्मूलं श्रेष्ठं मूलविरेचने |
प्रधानं तिल्वकस्त्वक्षु फलेष्वपि हरीतकी ||३||
तैलेष्वेरण्डजं तैलं स्वरसे कारवेल्लिका |
सुधापयः पयःसूक्तमिति प्राधान्यसङ्ग्रहः |
तेषां विधानं वक्ष्यामि यथावदनुपूर्वशः ||४||
Below mentioned are the purgatives which are best in their respective categories –

  • Root of Trivrit which is slightly red in color is the best among root purgatives;
  • Bark of Tilvaka is the best among bark purgatives;
  • Haritaki is the best among fruit purgatives;
  • Eranda taila is the best among oils purgatives;
  • Fresh juice of Karavella among purgative juices and
  • Milky sap of Sudha among purgative saps (are the most important)

Now I will describe their recipes and uses in succeeding order.
Read – Virechana Therapy – Right Method, Side Effects, Management

Mula virechana – Purgative recipes from roots

Trivrit Kalpa – Recipes of trivrit

Shveta trivrit – Operculina terepethum(Linn)
Shyama trivrit – Ipomoea petaloids chois

Trivrit recipe for vata disorders

वैरेचनद्रव्यरसानुपीतं मूलं महत्त्रैवृतमस्तदोषम् |
चूर्णीकृतं सैन्धवनागराढ्यमम्लैः पिबेन्मारुतरोगजुष्टः ||५||

Big roots of Trivrit which are unspoiled (not damaged by worms, fire etc.) and soaked well in the juice or decoction of other purgative drugs are taken and pounded so as to prepare their fine powder.
This powder should be consumed with more quantity of Saindhava and Nagara; along with sour liquids by the person affected by diseases of vata origin.
Read – Trivrit – Operculina turpethum – Usage, Dose, Side Effects

Trivrit formulations for pitta and kapha disorders

इक्षोर्विकारैर्मधुरै रसैस्तत् पैत्ते गदे क्षीरयुतं पिबेच्च
गुडूच्यरिष्टत्रिफलारसेन सव्योषमूत्रं कफजे पिबेत्तत् ||६||

The same (powder) should be consumed along with products of sugarcane juice (such as sugar etc) or juice of drugs which are sweet in taste and along with milk in diseases of Pitta origin.
The same (powder) should be consumed along with juice (decoction) of Guduchi, Arista, Triphala, added with Vyosha and Gomutra in diseases of kapha origin.
Read – How To Balance Pitta Dosha? Line Of Treatment

त्रिवर्णकत्र्यूषणयुक्तमेतद्गुडेन लिह्यादनवेन चूर्णम् |
प्रस्थे च तन्मूलरसस्य दत्वा तन्मूलकल्कं कुडवप्रमाणम् ||७||
कर्षोन्मिते सैन्धवनागरे च विपाच्य कल्कीकृतमेतदद्यात् |
तत्कल्कभागः समहौषधार्धः ससैन्धवो मूत्रयुतश्च पेयः ||८||

Powder of Trivrit should be mixed with powders of Trivarnaka (Trijata – twak, ela and patra), Tryushana (trikatu – pippali, maricha and shunthi) and old jaggery and consumed (to cure kaphaja disorders).
Alternatively, 1 kudava (160 grams) of paste of Trivrit should be soaked (boiled) in 1 prastha (640 grams) of decoction of the same roots (Trivrit) after adding 1 karsha (10 grams) each of Saindhava and Nagara. It should be consumed when the ingredients attain the form of a confection (become thick paste or jam like consistency).
Another form of using this is – one part of the paste of Trivrit should be mixed with half portion of powder of shunti and little quantity of saindhava and gomutra and consumed.

समास्त्रिवृन्नागरकाभयाः स्युर्भागार्धकं पूगफलं सुपक्वम् |
विडङ्गसारो मरिचं सदारु योगः ससिन्धूद्भवमूत्रयुक्तः ||९||
(विरेचनद्रव्यभवं तु चूर्णं रसेन तेषां भिषजा विमृद्य |
तन्मूलसिद्धेन च सर्पिषाऽऽक्तं सेव्यं तदाज्ये गुटिकीकृतं च ||१०||
गुडे च पाकाभिमुखे निधाय चूर्णीकृतं सम्यगिदं विपाच्य |
शीतं त्रिजाताक्तमथो विमृद्य योगानुरूपा गुटिकाः प्रयोज्याः) ||११||

Equal quantity of Trivrit, Shunti and Abhaya (2 tola each) along with half quantity each of (1 tola each) well ripened Puga phala, Vidanga, Maricha and Devadaru should be powdered. In this 1 masha of Saindhava should be added and consumed with Gomutra.
Powder of Purgative drugs is soaked well in the juice (or decoction) of roots of the same purgative drugs. This should be mixed with ghee prepared with past roots of Trivrit and ground properly. Tablets should be prepared from this paste and should be consumed with ghee. Tablets of 3 masha should be prepared. These tablets / pills should be consumed in suitable doses and diseases.
The powder of purgative drugs (Trivrit etc.) should be mixed in syrup of jaggery and cooked properly and cooled. When cooled, powder of Twak, Patra and Ela are added and grinded properly. Pills should be prepared from this. These pills shall be used to produce purgation in prescribed diseases.
Read – How To Balance Kapha Vata Dosha? 6 Factors To Consider

वैरेकीयद्रव्यचूर्णस्य भागं सिद्धं सार्धं क्वाथभागैश्चतुर्भिः |
आमृद्नीयात् सर्पिषा तच्छृतेन तत्क्वाथोष्मस्वेदितं सामितं च ||१२||
पाकप्राप्ते फाणिते चूर्णितं तत् क्षिप्तं पक्वं चावतार्य प्रयत्नात् |
शीतीभूता मोदका हृद्यगन्धाः कार्यास्त्वेते भक्ष्यकल्पाः समासात् ||१३||

Powder of a purgative drug in the proportion of one and half part is boiled in four times its quantity of its own decoction. During cooking, some quantity of ghee is added and a quantity of Saamita (flour of Godhuma) also cooked in the steam of the boiling decoction (are added to the decoction). When this assumes the consistency of molasses, it is removed from the oven, after it cools and emits a pleasant smell, it is rolled into Modaka (big pills) and consumed in suitable doses and in suitable diseases.

रसेन तेषां परिभाव्य मुद्गान् यूषः ससिन्धूद्भवसर्पिरिष्टः |
वैरेचनेऽन्यैरपि वैदलैः स्यादेवं विदध्याद्वमनौषधैश्च ||१४||

Mudga is boiled / triturated in the decoction of a purgative drug and its soup prepared. This soup is mixed with saindhava and ghee and used for purgation. In the same way soup prepared from other pulses along with decoction of purgative drugs (after boiling or triturating with them) may also be used for the purpose of purgation. Similarly, even emetic recipes may be prepared and used.
Read – Green Gram (Mung bean) Qualities, Uses, Remedies, Research

भित्त्वा द्विधेक्षुं परिलिप्य कल्कैस्त्रिभण्डिजातैः प्रतिबध्य रज्ज्वा |
पक्वं च सम्यक् पुटपाकयुक्त्या खादेत्तु तं पित्तगदी सुशीतम् ||१५||
A piece of sugarcane is split into two and a paste of tribhandi (shveta trivrit) is put inside the split. The parts are tied together with threads. The cane piece is then cooked in the manner of putapaka covered with mud plaster, put into a hearth. After it is cooked and becomes cool, it should be consumed by the person affected by diseases of Pitta origin.

सिताजगन्धात्वक्क्षीरीविदारीत्रिवृतः समाः |
लिह्यान्मधुघृताभ्यां तु तृड्दाहज्वरशान्तये ||१६||
Powder of equal quantity of Sita, Ajagandha, Tvakkshiri, Vidari and Trivrit, and added with honey and ghee should be licked for relief from thirst, burning sensation and fever.

शर्कराक्षौद्रसंयुक्तं त्रिवृच्चूर्णावचूर्णितम् |
रेचनं सुकुमाराणां त्वक्पत्रमरिचांशकम् ||१७||

Fine powder of Trivrit (one part) added with one- fourth part of powder of tvak, Patra and maricha and licked with sugar and honey is a good purgative recipe for persons of tender constitution.

पचेल्लेहं सिताक्षौद्रपलार्धकुडवान्वितम् |
त्रिवृच्चूर्णयुतं शीतं पित्तघ्नं तद्विरेचनम् ||१८||

Leha (confection) should be prepared with sharkara 1 pala, kshaudra (honey) ½ kudava and powder of Trivrit and should be consumed after it has been cooled. It produces purgation and mitigates pitta (best to produce purgation in pitta aggravation / pitta diseases).
Read – Pitta Increase Symptoms – Pitta Vriddhi Lakshana

त्रिवृच्छ्यामाक्षारशुण्ठीपिप्पलीर्मधुनाऽऽप्नुयात् |
सर्वश्लेष्मविकाराणां श्रेष्ठमेतद्विरेचनम् ||१९||

Powder of Trivrit, Shyama (Vriddhadaraka according to Dalhana) Yavakshara, ginger and Pippali licked with honey is a best purgative recipe in all diseases produced by Kapha.

बीजाढ्यपथ्याकाश्मर्यधात्रीदाडिमकोलजान् |
तैलभृष्टान् रसानम्लफलैरावाप्य साधयेत् ||२०||
घनीभूतं त्रिसौगन्ध्यत्रिवृत्क्षौद्रसमन्वितम् |
लेह्यमेतत्कफप्रायैः सुकुमारैर्विरेचनम् ||२१||
Pathya, Kashmarya, Dhatri, dadima and Kola and with prominent seeds inside them – are fried in oil (of eranda) and made into decoction. In this decoction, fruits of sour taste (such as Bijapura) are cooked. When it assumes thick consistency, powder of trisugandha and Trivrit and Kshaudra (honey) are added. This confection is a good purgative for diseases of Kapha origin and persons of tender constitution.
Read – Prakriti – Dosha Body Type Features As Per Master Charaka

नीलीतुल्यं त्वगेलं च तैस्त्रिवृत्ससितोपला |
चूर्णं सन्तर्पणं क्षौद्रफलाम्लं सन्निपातनुत् ||२२||
Niliphala one part, tvak and Ela together equal to it, added with powder of trivrit and sitopala equal to the above three (six part all together) is consumed with honey and juice of any fruit. This is nourishing purgative and mitigates sannipata Dosa.

त्रिवृच्छ्यामासिताकृष्णात्रिफलामाक्षिकैः समैः |
मोदकाः सन्निपातोर्ध्वरक्तपित्तज्वरापहाः ||२३||
Trivrit, Shyama, Sita, Krishna and Makshika (honey) all equal parts are made into Modaka (bolus); these when used, mitigate sannipata Doshas.

त्रिवृद्भागास्त्रयः प्रोक्तास्त्रिफला तत्समा तथा |
क्षारकृष्णाविडङ्गानि सञ्चूर्ण्य मधुसर्पिषा ||२४||
लिह्याद्गुडेन गुटिकाः कृत्वा वाऽप्यथ भक्षयेत् |
कफवातकृतान् गुल्मान् प्लीहोदरहलीमकान् ||२५||
हन्त्यन्यानपि चाप्येतन्निरपायं विरेचनम् |२६|
Trivrit, three parts, triphala equal to that, so also of Kshara (Yavakshara), Krishna and Vidanga (each three parts) are to be powdered and licked with honey and ghee or made into pills using jaggery and consumed. This cures abdominal tumor caused by Kapha-vata, enlargement of the abdomen due to enlargement of spleen, chlorosis (advanced jaundice) and many such diseases. This is a safe purgative.

चूर्णं श्यामा त्रिवृन्नीली कट्वी मुस्ता दुरालभा ||२६||
चव्येन्द्रबीजं त्रिफला सर्पिर्मांसरसाम्बुभिः |
पीतं विरेचनं तद्धि रूक्षाणामपि शस्यते ||२७||
Powder of Shyama, Trivrit, Nili, Katvi, Musta, Duralabha, Chavya, Indrabija and Triphala consumed along with ghee and soup of meat produces purgation easily and is suited even to persons who have dryness (of the alimentary tract).
Read – How To Prepare Triphala Kwath From Triphala Churna

वैरेचनिकनिःक्वाथभागाः शीतास्त्रयो मताः |
द्वौ फाणितस्य तच्चापि पुनरग्नावधिश्रयेत् ||२८||
तत् साधुसिद्धं विज्ञाय शीतं कृत्वा निधापयेत् |
कलसे कृतसंस्कारे विभज्यर्तू हिमाहिमौ ||२९||
मासादूर्ध्वं जातरसं मधुगन्धं वरासवम् |
पिबेदसावेव विधिः क्षारमूत्रासवेष्वपि ||३०||
Decoction of purgative drugs (trivrit etc) three parts after cooling are to be added with Phanita (mollases) two parts, boiled and liquid reduced (to half the quantity) and allowed to cool. Next, it is put into a pot smeared inside with honey, mouth of the pot sealed and kept undisturbed for some days considering the cold or heat of the seasons. After one month when the liquid has obtained a good taste and smell like honey, this Varasava (well-formed fermented liquid) should be taken out and consumed as a purgative. This procedure is the same for preparing Asava (fermented liquid) from Kshara (Alkalies) and Mutra (urines) even.
Read – Uses Of Animal Urine As Per Ayurveda

Sura Kalpana – Preparing beer

वैरेचनिकमूलानां क्वाथे माषान् सुभावितान् |
सुधौतांस्तत्कषायेण शालीनां चापि तण्डुलान् ||३१||
अवक्षुद्यैकतः पिण्डान् कृत्वा शुष्कान् सुचूर्णितान् |
शालितण्डुलचूर्णं च तत्कषायोष्मसाधितम् ||३२||
तस्य पिष्टस्य भागांस्त्रीन् किण्वभागविमिश्रितान् |
मण्डोदकार्थे क्वाथं च दद्यात्तत्सर्वमेकतः ||३३||
निदध्यात्कलसे तां तु सुरां जातरसां पिबेत् |
एष एव सुराकल्पो वमनेष्वपि कीर्तितः ||३४||
Masha should be soaked in the decoction of the root of purgative drugs slightly heated. Similarly rice which has been washed properly (and cleansed) should be soaked (triturated) in the same kashayas (decoctions prepared with purgative drugs). Both these masha (black gram) and rice should be pounded and made into a bolus. The powder of other types of rice should be cooked in the steam of the decoctions prepared with purgative drugs. This, one portion should be added with three portions of masha-tandula churna (powder of black gram and rice prepared above) and one part of kinva (yeast) mixed and stirred well. They are put into a pot and kept undisturbed for a few days after mixing the purgative decoctions so as to prepare sura. When it has attained good taste (good fermentation) or when sura (beer) is formed, it should be used for the purpose of purgation (as purgative medicine).

This method of preparing Sura (beer) can also be adopted for preparing emetic recipes.
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 6th Chapter Kritavedhana Kalpam

Sauviraka Kalpana – Preparing another kind of beer

मूलानि त्रिवृदादीनां प्रथमस्य गणस्य च |
महतः पञ्चमूलस्य मूर्वाशार्ङ्गेष्टयोरपि ||३५||
सुधां हैमवतीं चैव त्रिफलातिविषे वचाम् |
संहृत्यैतानि भागौ द्वौ कारयेदेकमेतयोः ||३६||
कुर्यान्निःक्वाथमेकस्मिन्नेकस्मिंश्चूर्णमेव तु |
क्षुण्णांस्तस्मिंस्तु निःक्वाथे भावयेद्बहुशो यवान् ||३७||
शुष्काणां मृदुभृष्टानां तेषां भागास्त्रयो मताः |
चतुर्थं भागमावाप्य चूर्णानामत्र कीर्तितम् ||३८||
प्रक्षिप्य कलसे सम्यक् ततस्तं तदनन्तरम् |
तेषामेव कषायेण शीतलेन सुयोजितम् ||३९||
पूर्ववत् सन्निदध्यात्तु ज्ञेयं सौवीरकं हि तत् |४०|
Root of Trivrit etc. (purgative drugs) and the first gana (vidarigandhadi gana), drugs of Mahat Panchamula, Murva, Sharngesta, Sudha, haimavati, triphala, Ativisha and Vacha – are collected and made into two parts. One part should be made into decoction and the other part is made into powder. Then dry yava (barley) should be soaked (triturated) in this (above prepared) decoction many times, dried and later fried slightly. Three parts of this powder of yava should be taken and mixed with one part of the powder (prepared above). The resultant powder should be put in a pot. Over this, the cold decoction (prepared with trivrit etc as explained above) should be put (poured). The contents of the pot should be kept undisturbed for some days (for fermentation). The resultant preparation is called sauviraka. This sauviraka is used as a purgative recipe.
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 7th Chapter Shyama Trivrit Kalpam

Tushodaka kalpana – Preparing third kind of beer

पूर्वोक्तं वर्गमाहृत्य द्विधा कृत्वैकमेतयोः ||४०||
भागं सङ्क्षुद्य संसृज्य यवैः स्थाल्यामधिश्रयेत् |
अजशृङ्ग्याः कषायेण तमभ्यासिच्य साधयेत् ||४१||
सुसिद्धांश्चावतार्यैतानौषधिभ्यो विवेचयेत् |
विमृद्य सतुषान् सम्यक् ततस्तान् पूर्ववन्मितान् ||४२||
पूर्वोक्तौषधभागस्य चूर्णं दत्त्वा तु पूर्ववत् |
तेनैव सह यूषेण कलसे पूर्ववत् क्षिपेत् ||४३||
ज्ञात्वा जातरसं चापि तत्तुषोदकमादिशेत् |
तुषाम्बुसौवीरकयोर्विधिरेष प्रकीर्तितः ||४४||
षड्रात्रात् सप्तरात्राद्वा ते च पेये प्रकीर्तिते |४५|

The drugs mentioned previously (in verses 35-36) are collected, divided into two parts. One part of this is pounded, mixed with Yava (along with its husk according to Dalhana) made into a bundle and boiled in a big vessel along with decoction of Ajashringi. After it is well cooked, the bundle is opened and Yava is separated from the other drugs, grinded well and mixed with the powder (the remaining second part) of the drugs mentioned earlier. Next, this is put into the decoction prepared from the same (drugs and barley) filled into a pot and kept as said earlier. After knowing it has become well fermented, this liquid known as Tusodaka is taken out for use.
Thus, was described the mode of preparing Tushambu (tushodaka) and Sauviraka; these become suitable for drinking after six or seven days (that is the time required for fermentation).
Notes: The difference between Sauvirka and tushodaka is only in respect of the use of barley; for Sauviraka dehusked barley slightly fried is used, whereas for Tushodaka barley along with its husk and unfired is used.

वैरेचनेषु सर्व्येषु त्रिवृन्मूलविधिः स्मृतः ||४५||
 The procedure (of preparing purgative recipes) for all other purgative drugs is similar to that described for trivrit.

Danti Dravanti Kalpa

Recipes of – Danti- Baliospermum montanum, Dravanti- Croton tiglium Linn

दन्तीद्रवन्त्योर्मूलानि विशेषान्मृत्कुशान्तरे |
पिप्पलीक्षौद्रयुक्तानि स्विन्नान्युद्धृत्य शोषयेत् ||४६||
ततस्त्रिवृद्विधानेन योजयेच्छ्लेष्मपित्तयोः |४७|

Roots of Danti and Dravanti, along with Pippali and Kshaudra (honey) should be placed inside a bundle of Kusha grass, enveloped with mud and specially cooked by putting it inside a hearth. Afterwards it is taken out, dried, powdered and used in the same way as that of Trivrit, in diseases caused by kapha and pitta.

 तयोः कल्ककषायाभ्यां चक्रतैलं विपाचयेत् ||४७||
सर्पिश्च पक्वं वीसर्पकक्षादाहालजीर्जयेत् |
मेहगुल्मानिलश्लेष्मविबन्धांस्तैलमेव च ||४८||
चतुःस्नेहं शकृच्छुक्रवातसंरोधजा रुजः |४९|
Chakra taila is cooked using the paste and decoction of these roots (of Danti and Dravanti). Ghrita is cooked in the same manner; it cures erysipelas, pustules in the Axilla, burning sensation and dermatitis.

Oil cooked cures diabetes, abdominal tumor, diseases of Vata and Kapha and constipation. Mixture of all the four fats oil, ghee, muscle fat and marrow cooked in the same way cures diseases / pains caused by obstruction of faeces, semen and flatus.

दन्तीद्रवन्तीमरिचकनकाह्वयवासकैः ||४९||
विश्वभेषजमृद्वीकाचित्रकैर्मूत्रभावितम्|
सप्ताहं सर्पिषा चूर्णं योज्यमेतद्विरेचनम् ||५०||
जीर्णे सन्तर्पणं क्षौद्रं पित्तश्लेष्मरुजापहम् |
अजीर्णपार्श्वरुक्पाण्डुप्लीहोदरनिबर्हणम् ||५१||

Roots of Danti and Dravanti, along with Maricha, Kanakahvya (Kankustha or Nagakesara), Yavasaka, Vishvabhesaja, Mridvika and Chitraka are soaked in Gomutra for seven days, afterwards dried and converted to powder. This powder is to be used as a Purgative recipe mixing it with ghee. After it gets digested, honey should be used as restorative (or laja sattu should be used with honey as restorative). By this, diseases caused by Pitta and Kapha, indigestion, pain in the flanks, anemia and splenomegaly get cured.

गुडस्याष्टपले पथ्या विंशतिः स्युः पलं पलम् |
दन्तीचित्रकयोः कर्षौ पिप्पलीत्रिवृतोर्दश ||५२||
कृत्वैतान्मोदकानेकं दशमे दशमेऽहनि |
ततः खादेदुष्णतोयसेवी निर्यन्त्रणास्त्विमे ||५३||
दोषघ्ना ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगार्शःकुष्ठनाशनाः |५४|
Guda – jaggery (eight Pala), Pathya twenty by number, Danti and Cihtraka each one pala (40gms), Pippali and Trivrit one Karsha (10gms) each are powdered nicely and made into ten pills. One pill to be consumed every tenth day followed by drinking warm water and observing restraint (avoidance of breeze, sunlight etc.). This pill mitigates the Doshas, and cures duodenal disease, anemia, hemorrhoids, and leprosy (and some skin diseases).
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 12th Chapter Danti Dravanti Kalpam

Trivridastaka modaka

व्योषं त्रिजातकं मुस्ता विडङ्गामलके तथा ||५४||
नवैतानि समांशानि त्रिवृदष्टगुणानि वै |
श्लक्ष्णचूर्णीकृतानीह दन्तीभागद्वयं तथा ||५५||
(सर्वाणि चूर्णितानीह गालितानि विमिश्रयेत् ) |
षड्भिश्च शर्कराभागैरीषत्सैन्धवमाक्षिकैः ||५६||
पिण्डितं भक्षयित्वा तु ततः शीताम्बु पाययेत् |
बस्तिरुक्तृड्ज्वरच्छर्दिशोषपाण्डुभ्रमापहम् ||५७||
निर्यन्त्रणमिदं सर्वविषघ्नं तु विरेचनम् |
त्रिवृदष्टकसञ्ज्ञोऽयं प्रशस्तः पित्तरोगिणाम् ||५८||
भक्ष्यः क्षीरानुपानो वा पित्तश्लेष्मातुरैर्नरैः |
भक्ष्यरूपसधर्मत्वादाढ्येष्वेव विधीयते ||५९||
Vyosha, Trijataka, Musta, Vidanga, Amalaka – these nine drugs each equal in quantity, together forming one part, is added with Trivrit – eight parts and Danti two parts. All are made into a nice powder, filtered through cloth; and mixed with sugar-six parts, little quantities of saindhava and Makshika (honey) and made into pills. This should be consumed followed by drinking cold water and remaining restrained. This cures pain of the bladder, thirst, fever, vomiting, consumption, anemia and vertigo and all kinds of poisons. This   purgative recipe known as Trivridashtaka (modaka) is best suited to persons affected by diseases of pitta origin; it can be consumed by persons suffering from diseases of pitta and Kapha, followed by drinking milk. It can be administered even to wealthy persons since it is similar in qualities to bhaksya (food menu).

Tvak virechana – Recipes from purgative barks

Tilvaka Kalpa- recipes of Tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa Roxb)

तिल्वकस्य त्वचं बाह्यामन्तर्वल्कविवर्जिताम् |
चूर्णयित्वा तु द्वौ भागौ तत्कषायेण गालयेत् ||६०||
तृतीयं भावितं तेन भागं शुष्कं तु भावितम् |
दशमूलीकषायेण त्रिवृद्वत्सम्प्रयोजयेत् ||६१||
विधानं त्वक्षु निर्दिष्टं … |६२|
The outer bark of Tilvaka, devoid of its inner layer, is collected, dried well and made into powder and divided into three portions. Two portions are boiled with its own (Tilvaka) Kashaya. The remaining third portion of the powder is soaked in this Kashaya (triturated) and is later dried. Later this powder is triturated (soaked in) Dasamula decoction, dried and used for purgation just like trivrit (recipe).

Phala Virechana – Recipes from purgative fruits

 Haritaki kalpa – recipes of Haritaki (Terminalia Chebula Retz)

 … फलानामथ वक्ष्यते |
हरीतक्याः फलं त्वस्थिविमुक्तं दोषवर्जितम् ||६२||
योज्यं त्रिवृद्विधानेन सर्वव्याधिनिबर्हणम् |
रसायनं परं मेध्यं दुष्टान्तर्व्रणशोधनम् ||६३||
हरीतकी विडङ्गानि सैन्धवं नागरं त्रिवृत् |
मरिचानि च तत्सर्वं गोमुत्रेण विरेचनम् ||६४||
हरीतकी भद्रदारु कुष्ठं पूगफलं तथा |
सैन्धवं शृङ्गवेरं च गोमूत्रेण विरेचनम् ||६५||
नीलिनीफलचूर्णं तु नागराभययोस्तथा |
लिह्याद्गुडेन सलिलं पश्चादुष्णं पिबेन्नरः ||६६||
पिप्पल्यादिकषायेण पिबेत्पिष्टां हरीतकीम् |
सैन्धवोपहितां सद्य एष योगो विरेचयेत् ||६७||
हरीतकी भक्ष्यमाणा नागरेण गुडेन वा |
सैन्धवोपहिता वाऽपि सातत्येनाग्निदीपनी ||६८||
वातानुलोमनी वृष्या चेन्द्रियाणां प्रसादनी |
सन्तर्पणकृतान् रोगान् प्रायो हन्ति हरीतकी ||६९||

Next, we will describe the recipes from fruits; Haritaki Phala devoid of its seed and blemishes should be made use of in the same manner as that of Trivrit, this (Haritaki) cures all diseases, is a best rejuvenator, promotes intelligence and cleanses internal ulcers.

  •  Haritaki, Vidanga, Saindhava, Nagara, Trivrit and Marica and made into nice powder and consumed mixed with Gomutra; this is a good purgative.
  • Powder of Nilini Ohala, Nagara and Abhya, licked with Guda followed by drinking warm water as a purgative.
  • Paste of Haritaki is mixed with the decoction of drugs of pippaliyadi Gana and added with Saindhava; this recipe produces purgation immediately.
  • Haritaki consumed habitually, mixed with either Nagara, Guda or Pippalyadi Gana and added with Saindhava; this recipe produces purgation’s immediately. Haritaki consumed habitually, mixed with either Nagara, Guda or Saindhava kindles digestive power.
  • Haritaki promotes downward movement of Vata, is aphrodisciac, brings keenness to the sense organs and generally cures diseases by excess nourishment.

Triphala Kalpa- Recipes of Triphala

शीतमामलकं रूक्षं पित्तमेदःकफापहम् |
बिभीतकमनुष्णं तु कफपित्तनिबर्हणम् ||७०||
त्रीण्यप्यम्लकषायाणि सतिक्तमधुराणि च |७१|
त्रिफला सर्वरोगघ्नी त्रिभागघृतमूर्च्छिता ||७१||
वयसः स्थापनं चापि कुर्यात् सन्ततसेविता |७२|
हरीतकीविधानेन फलान्येवं प्रयोजयेत् ||७२||

विरेचनानि सर्वाणि… |७३|

  •  Amalaka is cold; dry (non-unctuous) mitigates Pitta, Medas and Kapha. Vibhitaka is not hot (is cold) in potency, mitigates Kapha and Pitta.
  •  All the three (Haritaki, Amalaki, Vibhitaka) are sour and astringent in taste prominently and bitter and sweet slightly.
  • Triphala cures all diseases, when consumed with three parts of ghee and consumed habitually it withholds even ageing.
  • All other purgative fruits may be made use of in the same manner prescribed for Haritaki.

Chaturangula Kalpa

Recipe of Chaturangula (Cassia fistula)

… विशेषाच्चतुरङ्गुलात् |
फलं काले समुद्धृत्य सिकतायां निधापयेत् ||७३||
सप्ताहमातपे शुष्कमतो मज्जानमुद्धरेत् |
तैलं ग्राह्यं जले पक्त्वा तिलवद्वा प्रपीड्य च ||७४||
तस्योपयोगो बालानां यावद्वर्षाणि द्वादश |
लिह्यादेरण्डतैलेन कुष्ठत्रिकटुकान्वितम् ||७५||
सुखोदकं चानुपिबेदेष योगो विरेचयेत् |७६|
 Chaturangula (Cassia fistula Linn), especially its fruits, should be collected at the appropriate time and kept buried in sand for seven days. Then it is dried in sunlight and its marrow (gummy material inside) is collected separately. Then its oil is extracted by boiling in water or by pressing as similar to Tila. This oil can be made use for children up to their age of twelve years and may be licked (by adults) along with Eranda taila and powder of Kustha and Trikatuka followed by drinking warm water, these recipes produce purgations easily.

Taila virechana- Recipes from purgative oils

एरण्डतैलं त्रिफलाक्वाथेन त्रिगुणेन तु ||७६||
युक्तं पीतं तथा क्षीररसाभ्यां तु विरेचयेत् |
बालवृद्धक्षतक्षीणसुकुमारेषु योजितम् ||७७||
Eranda taila (castor oil- Ricinis communis Linn) mixed with three times its quantity of decoction of triphala or with milk or meat soup produces purgation. This may be administered to children, old persons, the wounded, emaciated and persons of tender constitution.

Ksheera virechana – Recipes from purgative latex

Snuhi

फलानां विधिरुद्दिष्टः …. |७८|
… क्षीराणां शृणु सुश्रुत! |

विरेचनानां तीक्ष्णानां पयः सौधं परं मतम् ||७८||
अज्ञप्रयुक्तं तद्धन्ति विषवत् कर्मविभ्रमात् |
विजानता प्रयुक्तं तु महान्तमपि सञ्चयम् ||७९||
भिनत्त्याश्वेव दोषाणां रोगान् हन्ति च दुस्तरान् |८०|
Thus, was described the method of using purgative fruits. Dear Sushruta, listen now to recipes of latex (milky sap). Among strong purgatives, milky sap of Sudha (snuhi) (Euphorbia Nerrifolia Linn) is considered the best. When it is administered by the ignorant (physicians) it kills (the patient) like poison (kills a person) by improper usage. But when used with full knowledge, it quickly removes even great accumulation of doshas and cures diseases which are difficult to cure.

महत्याः पञ्चमूल्यास्तु बृहत्योश्चैकशः पृथक् ||८०||
कषायैः समभागं तु तदङ्गारेषु शोषितम् |
अम्लादिभिः पूर्ववत्तु प्रयोज्यं कोलसम्मितम् ||८१||
महावृक्षपयः पीतैर्यवागूस्तण्डुलैः कृता |
पीता विरेचयत्याशु गुडेनोत्कारिका कृता ||८२||
लेहो वा साधितः सम्यक् स्नुहीक्षीरपयोघृतैः [९] |
भावितास्तु स्नुहीक्षीरे पिप्पल्यो लवणान्विताः ||८३||
चूर्णं काम्पिल्लकं वाऽपि तत्पीतं गुटिकीकृतम् |८४|
 Drugs of Mahat Panchamula together with the two Brihati (seven drugs in total) are made into decoction. To this is added one part (equal) of milky sap of Snuhi and consumed in the dose of one kola (10gm) followed by drinking sour liquids (Sura, Mastu, Kanjika etc) (to produce purgation).
Rice is soaked in the milky sap of Mahavriksha (snuhi) and dried well. Yavagu (thick gruel) is prepared from this and consumed. This produces purgation. Or Panaka may be made using Guda or confection prepared with sap of Snuhi, milk and ghee may be used. Pippali, Lavana and dust of Kampillaka are soaked in sap of Snuhi. Then they are made into pills and consumed (may also but used to produce purgation).
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 10th Chapter Sudha Kalpam

Shaptala, Shankhini, Danti, Trivrit and Aragvadha

सप्तला शङ्खिनी दन्ती त्रिवृदारग्वधं गवाम् ||८४||
मूत्रेणाप्लाव्य सप्ताहं स्नुहीक्षीरे ततः परम् |
कीर्णं तेनैव चूर्णेन माल्यं वसनमेव च ||८५||
आघ्रायावृत्य वा सम्यङ्मृदुकोष्ठो विरिच्यते |८६|
क्षीरत्वक्फलमूलानां विधानैः परिकीर्तितैः |
अवेक्ष्य सम्यग्रोगादीन् यथावदुपयोजयेत् ||८६||
Saptala, Sankhini, Danti, Trivrit and Aragvadha – are powdered and soaked in Gomutra for seven days and dried. Next this is soaked in the sap of Snuhi (for seven days) and dried. This fine powder is sprinkled on garlands or dress and given to the patient to inhale. By doing so repeatedly, persons of soft bowel movement will have purgation.

The physician after carefully considering the nature of the diseases should administer purgative recipes prepared from latex, bark, fruits and roots of drugs as described so far.
Read – Charaka Kalpa Sthana 11th Chapter Saptala Shankhini Kalpam

Shresta virechana yoga- Best purgative recipe

त्रिवृच्छाणा मितास्तिस्रस्तिस्रश्च त्रिफलात्वचः |
विडङ्गपिप्पलीक्षारशाणास्तिस्रश्च चूर्णिताः ||८७||
लिह्यात् सर्पिर्मधुभ्यां च मोदकं वा गुडेन वा |
क्षयेन्निष्परीहारमेतच्छ्रेष्ठं विरेचनम् ||८८||
गुल्मं प्लीहोदरं कासं हलीमकमरोचकम् |
कफवातकृतांश्चान्यान् व्याधीनेतद्व्यपोहति ||८९||
Trivrit one Shana (750 mg), bark of each of triphala – three Shana each (2 1/2 gm) Vidanga, Pippali, and Yavaksara together three Shana(2 ½  gm)- all are powdered  nicely and licked along with ghee and honey  or made into pills using guda (jaggery) and consumed. This is a best purgative recipe, free from any hazard, cures abdominal tumors, splenomegaly, cough, chlorosis, loss of taste and other diseases caused by kapha and Vata.

 घृतेषु तैलेषु पयःसु चापि मद्येषु मूत्रेषु तथा रसेषु |
भक्ष्यान्नलेह्येषु च तेषु तेषु विरेचनान्यग्रमतिर्विदध्यात् ||९०||
 The intelligent physician administers purgative recipes prepared from appropriate drugs along with medicated ghee, oil, milk, wine, urine, and meat soup.

Six formulations of drugs which are ‘light’ in successive order

क्षीरं रसः कल्कमथो कषायः शृतश्च शीतश्च तथैव चूर्णम् |
कल्पाः षडेते खलु भेषजानां यथोत्तरं ते लघवः प्रदिष्टाः ||९१||
The six kinds of formulation of drugs which are described as light (easy for digestion) in their successive order are –

  • fresh juice,
  • paste,
  • decoction,
  • hot infusion,
  • cold infusion and
  • powder

इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने विरेचनद्रव्यविकल्पविज्ञानीयो नाम चतुश्चत्वारिंशोऽध्यायः ||४४||
Thus ends the Forty fourth chapter by name Virechana dravya Kalpa Vijnaniya in sutra Sthana of Sushruta samhita.



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