This article explains Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 34 “Yuktaseniya Adhyaya” – Physician according the army.
Physician according the army
अथातो युक्तसेनीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ||१||
यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ||२||
We will now expound the chapter by name Yuktaseniya – (duties of) the physician accompanying the army; as revealed by the venerable Dhanvantari.
Read – Eight Divine Qualities of a Physician – Ashta Jnana Devata
Bhishak karya –Duties of Army Physician
नृपतेर्युक्तसेनस्य परानभिजिगीषतः |
भिषजा रक्षणं कार्यं यथा तदुपदेक्ष्यते ||३||
विजिगीषुः सहामात्यैर्यात्रायुक्तः प्रयत्नतः |
रक्षितव्यो विशेषेण विषादेव नराधिपः ||४||
Now I will describe how the physician should put all efforts to protect the king who is accompanied by his army and who has a desire to conquer the enemies. The king desirous of winning over his enemies and is marching together with his army and ministers with the same motive should especially (always) be protected from the poisons (the king will always be in a threat of getting poisoned in one or the other way).
पन्थानमुदकं छायां भक्तं यवसमिन्धनम् |
दूषयन्त्यरयस्तच्च जानीयाच्छोधयेत्तथा ||५||
Enemies will contaminate (with poison) the road, water, shade (of trees etc), food (eatables), fodder and fuel etc. The physician should understand those signs of poisoning of different things and purify (detoxify) them. The signs and treatment of these will be described in KalpaSthana (section 5 of this text).
Read – Designations Given To Ayurvedic Doctors – Vaidya Upadhi
Mrityu Bheda – kinds of death
तस्य लिङ्गं चिकित्सा च कल्पस्थाने प्रवक्ष्यते
एकोत्तरं मृत्युशतमथर्वाणः प्रचक्षते ||६||
तत्रैकः कालसंयुक्तः शेषा आगन्तवः स्मृताः |७|
Followers of Atharva veda say that death is one hundred and one in number; out of these one is accompanied with Kala (time/ stipulated span of life) and the remaining are Agantu (accidental, premature).
Notes: Death is of two kinds; Kala Mrityu- death at proper time at the end of stipulated span of life and Akala mrityu – death at improper time or premature death, caused by different factors such as accidents, diseases, wrath of Gods etc.
Read – Kala – The Time Factor
दोषागन्तुजमृत्युभ्यो रसमन्त्रविशारदौ ||७||
रक्षेतां नृपतिं नित्यं यत्तौ वैद्यपुरोहितौ |८|
The physician and the priest, who are versed in the knowledge of Rasa (mineral medicine preparations including those prepared from purified mercury?) and sacred hymns respectively, shall protect the king from the deaths caused by doshas (aggravation) and external causes (like injury, curse, poisons etc) with all efforts.
Read – Veda and Upaveda – Introduction
Revelation of eight branched Ayurveda by Lord Brahma
ब्रह्मा वेदाङ्गमष्टाङ्गमायुर्वेदमभाषत ||८||
पुरोहितमते तस्माद्वर्तेत भिषगात्मवान् |९
Lord Brahma has revealed the eight branched Ayurveda as a branch of the Veda. So, the wise physician should follow the opinions (instructions) of the priests.
Read – Ashtanga Ayurveda – The Eight Branches of Ayurveda
Impact of bad deeds of the king
सङ्करः सर्ववर्णानां प्रणाशो धर्मकर्मणाम् ||९||
प्रजानामपि चोच्छित्तिर्नृपव्यसनहेतुतः |१०|
When the king is on the wrong path or is addicted to bad habits, admixture of all castes, destruction of righteousness and cessation of all religious activities (auspicious activities like sacrificial rituals etc) and destruction of people of the kingdom will occur.
Raja Daivasamanah – King similar to God
पुरुषाणां नृपाणां च केवलं तुल्यमूर्तिता ||१०||
आज्ञा त्यागः क्षमा धैर्यं विक्रमश्चाप्यमानुषः |
तस्माद्देवमिवाभीक्ष्णं वाङ्मनःकर्मभिः शुभैः ||११||
चिन्तयेन्नृपतिं वैद्यः श्रेयांसीच्छन् विचक्षणः |१२|
The common man and the king are similar in appearance but by his ability to command, sacrifice, forgive, and have courage and valour, the king is super human. Hence, a wise physician, desirous of reputation, just like a God, with his auspicious speech, thoughts and actions, being a well wisher of the king, should constantly think about protecting and serving the king.
Read – Ethics Of A Physician – Vaidya Vritti
Vaidya sthana – place of the physician
स्कन्धावारे च महति राजगेहादनन्तरम् ||१२||
भवेत्सन्निहितो वैद्यः सर्वोपकरणान्वितः |
तत्रस्थमेनं ध्वजवद्यशःख्यातिसमुच्छ्रितम् ||१३||
उपसर्पन्त्यमोहेन विषशल्यामयार्दिताः |
स्वतन्त्रकुशलोऽन्येषु शास्त्रार्थेष्वबहिष्कृतः ||१४||
वैद्यो ध्वज इवाभाति नृपतद्विद्यपूजितः|१५|
In the big camp of the army, the physician should reside next to the palace (dwelling place) of the king, equipped with all requirements. The physician, who has earned great reputation and success like a royal banner by staying there, is approached with a clear mind by all those suffering from the impact of foreign bodies and diseases.
The physician who is proficient in his own science and not ignorant of other sciences, shines like the royal banner and will be honoured by the king as well as by those proficient in the science (Ayurveda).
Read – Understanding The Principles of Ayurveda
Chikitsa Pada – Limbs of treatment
वैद्यो व्याध्युपसृष्टश्च भेषजं परिचारकः ||१५||
एते पादाश्चिकित्सायाः कर्मसाधनहेतवः |
गुणवद्भिस्त्रिभिः पादैश्चतुर्थो गुणवान् भिषक् ||१६||
व्याधिमल्पेन कालेन महान्तमपि साधयेत्
वैद्यहीनास्त्रयः पादा गुणवन्तोऽप्यपार्थकाः ||१७||
उद्गातृहोतृब्रह्माणो यथाऽध्वर्युं विनाऽध्वरे
वैद्यस्तु गुणवानेकस्तारयेदातुरां सदा ||१८||
प्लवं प्रतितरैर्हीनं कर्णधार इवाम्भसि |१९|
- Physician, patient (sick person), medicine (drug) and attendant (nurse) – these are the four limbs of treatment and responsible for its success.
- When the three limbs endowed with good qualities are available (associated with) the fourth limb – i.e., the physician possessing good qualities, will be able to cure even a great disease, within a short time.
- Without the physician the other three limbs, though having all good qualities are futile, just like Udgatr, Hotr and Brahmana (priests of Sama Veda, Rig Veda and Atharva Veda respectively) without the Adhvaryu (priest of Yajurveda) in a sacrifice.
- The physician possessing good qualities alone can save the patient always, just as the navigator alone can save the boat in water even without other assistants with oars.
Read – Ayurvedic Hospital Management – Chikitsa Chatushpada
Vaidya Guna – Qualities of physician
तत्त्वाधिगतशास्त्रार्थो दृष्टकर्मा स्वयङ्कृती ||१९||
लघुहस्तः शुचिः शूरः सज्जोपस्करभेषजः |
प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिर्धीमान् व्यवसायी विशारदः ||२०||
सत्यधर्मपरो यश्च स भिषक् पाद उच्यते |२१|
The physician endowed with below mentioned qualities is the first limb of the treatment. He should –
- have studied the science (of Ayurveda) thoroughly and understood it perfectly,
- have seen the treatments being performed,
- have gained experience by doing it by himself (practical experience),
- be firm in hand,
- be clean,
- be brave (bold),
- be possessing all equipments and drugs required,
- intelligent to manage any situation,
- well-versed (in precepts and practice),
- adhering to truth and righteousness
Rogi Guna-Qualities of patient
आयुष्मान् सत्त्ववान् साध्यो द्रव्यवानात्मवानपि ||२१||
आस्तिको वैद्यवाक्यस्थो व्याधितः पाद उच्यते |२२|
The rogi i.e., patient having the below mentioned qualities is considered as another limb (third limb) of treatment. He should –
Aushadha Guna- Qualities of drug
प्रशस्तदेशसम्भूतं प्रशस्तेऽहनि चोद्धृतम् ||२२||
युक्तमात्रं मनस्कान्तं गन्धवर्णरसान्वितम् |
दोषघ्नमग्लानिकरमविकारि विपर्यये |
समीक्ष्य दत्तं काले च भेषजं पाद उच्यते ||२३||
The medicine is known as another limb (third limb) when it satisfies the below mentioned conditions (is endowed with below mentioned qualities). It should –
- have been grown in an auspicious place,
- collected on precious day,
- used in appropriate quantity (dose),
- pleasing to the mind,
- endowed with good smell, colour and taste,
- mitigating the Doshas,
- not causing exhaustion,
- not causing great distress (or complications) even during sickness,
- administered properly and at correct time
Paricharaka guna – qualities of attendants
स्निग्धोऽजुगुप्सुर्बलवान् युक्तो व्याधितरक्षणे |
वैद्यवाक्यकृदश्रान्तः पादः परिचरः स्मृतः ||२४||
Paricharaka or attendant having the below mentioned qualities shall be considered as another limb (fourth limb) of treatment. He should –
- be affectionate,
- not disgusting,
- desirous of protecting the patient,
- obeying the instructions of the physician scrupulously and untiring;
इति श्रीसुश्रुतसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाते युक्तसेनीयो नाम चतुस्त्रिंशत्तमोऽध्यायः ॥३४॥
Thus ends the Thirty fourth chapter by name Yuktaseniya in Sutra Sthana of Sushruta Samhita.